- Generic Name or Active Ingridient: Oxycodone Hydrochloride And Acetaminophen
Xolox withdrawal is the normal, predictable consequence of using this drug continuously for more than a few weeks. A doctor will diagnose a person as being opioid-dependent if the patient experiences withdrawal symptoms when he stops taking this medication.
Xolox is an opioid pain reliever, distributed by Rebel Distribution Corp. Xolox contains 10 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride and 500 mg of acetaminophen, available in tablet form for oral administration.
Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic compound, created from thebaine extracted from the opium poppy plant, Papaver somniferum.
The body adjusts to the presence of some substances, including oxycodone. Over time, the body becomes accustomed to a certain level of oxycodone to feel "normal." When oxycodone levels fall rapidly, the body struggles to maintain chemical balance. Doctors refer to this as detoxification. The individual experiences the detoxification process through uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms.
Detoxification causes withdrawal symptoms in an opioid-dependent person. There are several ways to initiate the detoxification process, including missing a dose, taking an insufficient dose or using a drug that lowers oxycodone levels.
Facts about this drug
Doctors prescribe Xolox to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain. Recreational users favor drugs like Xolox because of the way oxycodone gets them high.
Using high doses of Xolox, abusing it for a long time or using Xolox for non-medical reasons increase the risk for developing dependence. To use Xolox for non-medical reasons means to take it to get high or to treat a condition other than the one the doctor intended to treat.
Opioids, including the oxycodone in Xolox, work directly on the nervous system to relieve pain, calm anxiety and cause sedation and euphoria. Oxycodone and other opioids also work on smooth muscle groups, like those in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result, many Xolox withdrawal symptoms affect the nervous and digestive systems.
Chronic use or high doses may increase the consumer's tolerance to Xolox. Someone with a high tolerance must take stronger doses more frequently to achieve the same analgesic or euphoric effects. Xolox withdrawal may decrease tolerance, meaning the individual is more sensitive to the effects of this drug.
Potential for Abuse
High doses, chronic abuse and non-medical use of Xolox increases the risk for developing opioid dependence. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, or DEA, ranks drugs according to their relative risk for abuse. Heroin, for example, is a schedule I narcotic because it poses a large risk for abuse and offers no medical benefit. The DEA classifies all drugs containing oxycodone as schedule II narcotics, meaning Xolox poses the same risk for abuse as raw opium. To reduce this risk, Xolox is available only with a doctor's prescription.
Abuse and Addiction Rates
Federal restrictions have done little to stem abuse and addiction rates in the United States, where about one in every 20 Americans admitted to using an opioid for non-medical reasons 2010.
Prescription drug abuse has now eclipsed illicit substance abuse figures. In 2010, about 1.9 million Americans were addicted to prescription painkillers, compared with only 329,000 heroin addicts that year.
This epidemic of prescription drugs could be due, at least in part, by widespread availability of opioid pain medications. People in the United States use the most painkillers. Even though Americans represent roughly 5 percent of global population, they use 80 percent of the world's opioids. People in the U.S. also use about 99 percent of the oxycodone on earth.
Facts about Withdrawal
Anyone can become opioid-dependent.
Xolox withdrawal is not necessarily caused by willful drug abuse or criminal behavior - it is possible to become opioid-dependent while using Xolox as prescribed to treat a medical condition. The prescribing physician should advise the patient how to taper Xolox use once the individual no longer needs it.
Withdrawal symptoms usually appear a few hours after the last dose of Xolox and last for five or more days. Symptoms are often worse on the fourth day. Left untreated, withdrawal symptoms disappear in time and do not return as long as the individual does not relapse to a dependent state.
The individual can address Xolox withdrawal symptoms in a variety of ways. Those who have used Xolox for more than a few weeks should taper Xolox use over a two-week period to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Medications can ease individual symptoms.
Some medications mimic the effects of oxycodone, halting detoxification and withdrawal. The individual may take more Xolox to withdrawal symptoms and reverse the detoxification process. These methods do not resolve drug dependence; the individual must eventually complete the detoxification process to stop Xolox withdrawal symptoms permanently.
Overwhelming Xolox withdrawal symptoms drive many people to relapse back to drug use. Xolox withdrawal symptoms can trap individuals in a cycle of relapse and remission especially without medical intervention.
Physical and psychological symptoms may interfere with recovery. Uncomfortable and discouraging but not life threatening. These symptoms are uncomfortable and discouraging, but usually not life threatening.
Xolox withdrawal causes a variety of symptoms, some of which are similar to influenza. Flu-like symptoms include muscle aches, chills alternating with hot flashes, severe sneezing, watery eyes, stuffy or runny nose, sweating, goose bumps, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea and pronounced weakness. Other physical Xolox withdrawal symptoms include yawning, increased heart rate and blood pressure, tremor, salivation, loss of appetite, dilated pupils, nervousness, insomnia and restlessness.
Xolox withdrawal may also produce psychological symptoms including anxiety, irritability and depression. These psychological manifestations can be as overwhelming as physical symptoms and, without adequate treatment, increase the risk for relapse.
The detoxification process is not typically life threatening but Xolox withdrawal symptoms may result in dangerous complications. An individual may vomit then inhale stomach contents, a complication known as aspiration. Aspiration may cause fluid in the lung and lung infections. Excessive vomiting, diarrhea and sweating might cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
Relapse is the primary complication of Xolox withdrawal. Without medication to reduce uncomfortable and prolonged symptoms or counseling to change the behaviors associated with drug abuse, the individual is likely to return to drug abuse. Professional treatment reduces the risk for complications including aspiration, dehydration and relapse.
Chronic use of Xolox or other drugs increases the risk for side effects, overdose or infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and hepatitis B and C. Treatment reduces these risks by stopping drug use, detoxifying the body and modifying behaviors associated with drug abuse.
Widespread prescription drug abuse has created a great need for treatment for drug dependence and addiction. In 2010, more than 23 million people in the United States needed treatment for drug or alcohol abuse. Of those that needed help, only about 11 percent of those who needed it got it in a specialty facility staffed with professionals who have received advanced training. Everyone else sought help from a general hospital or psychiatric unit without trained staff or tried to overcome Xolox withdrawal alone.
Treatment involves two phases: detoxification and rehabilitation. Detoxification is the medical process of lowering oxycodone levels and dealing with the ensuing Xolox withdrawal symptoms. The rehabilitation phase teaches the person how to live a drug-free life.
Many people try to overcome Xolox withdrawal alone, without medicine to ease symptoms or the guidance of a trained professional, in a process known as "self-detoxification" or "going cold turkey." Cold turkey refers to the skin's appearance during detoxification process: pale, cold, clammy with goose bumps, resembling a plucked bird.
Self-detoxification is prolonged, uncomfortable, demoralizing and associated with a high rate of complications including aspiration, dehydration and relapse.
The Thomas Recipe
Some individuals try to overcome Xolox withdrawal symptoms by creating a homemade treatment plan that uses multiple medications to address the variety of physical withdrawal symptoms. One famous remedy is That Thomas Recipe that calls for a benzodiazepine such as Valium, Librium, Ativan or Xanax to quiet anxiety and encourage sleep. Imodium slows diarrhea and insomnia while Vitamin B6 and supplements along with hot baths soothe muscle aches and calm restless leg syndrome. To address overwhelming malaise and fatigue, the individual takes L-Tyrosine for a burst of energy.
The Thomas Recipe eases the severity of Xolox withdrawal symptoms but does not shorten the duration of the detoxification process. Participants still face a risk for complications including aspiration, dehydration and relapse that could potentially lead to overdose.
The detoxification process increases risk for overdose because any amount of detoxification reduces the body's tolerance to Xolox, making the individual more sensitive to the effects of oxycodone. It is possible for a person to overdose on a weaker dose of Xolox than he used to take before experiencing even moderate withdrawal symptoms.
It is possible to overdose on either the oxycodone or the acetaminophen in Xolox, or both. Overdoses of oxycodone or acetaminophen are serious, potentially fatal medical emergencies. Overdose of prescription painkillers including Xolox overdose kills nearly 15,000 people every year in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure.
Transport any suspected victims of Xolox overdose to the nearest medical facility. Call for an ambulance if it results in more immediate care. Emergency department doctors will administer 0.4 mg to 2 mg of naloxone intravenously to reduce oxycodone levels rapidly. If acetaminophen levels are high, emergency department physicians will administer the antidote to acetaminophen, N-acetylcysteine.
Emergency department nurses will establish an airway to help the patient breathe. Nurses will pump the patient's stomach or introduce charcoal to absorb excess Xolox. Nurses will also start intravenous fluids to stabilize and watch for complications.
Drug Replacement Therapy
People not in immediate danger of toxic overdose can engage in DRT, or drug replacement therapy. DRT replaces Xolox with other drugs that mimic oxycodone but do not produce euphoria. As a result, the patient does not get high or experience Xolox withdrawal symptoms. DRT drugs include methadone, Suboxone and buprenorphine.
DRT allows the individual to delay the detoxification process temporarily while he engages in rehabilitation. Once he learns to live without Xolox, he weans himself from the DRT medication.
DRT has its benefits and risks. DRT allows an individual to continue working and taking care of personal responsibilities while engaging in meaningful rehabilitation but some DRT drugs can be hard to stop using and can even be dangerous - methadone accounts for one-third of all deaths involving opioid pain relievers. Furthermore, DRT only delays the detoxification process.
Many inpatient institutions now offer detoxification procedures to help people overcome Xolox withdrawal. Specially trained doctors administer naloxone and anti-withdrawal medication while nurses provide supportive care. Standard detoxification reduces the severity of withdrawal symptoms but does not address the psychological or behavioral aspects of Xolox withdrawal.
Many consider rapid detox the most humane form of detoxification available today. Board-certified anesthesiologists trained in rapid detox administer sedatives and anesthesia alongside the standard detoxification and anti-withdrawal drugs. The patient dozes in a comfortable "twilight sleep" during the detoxification process, unaware of the grueling and demoralizing Xolox withdrawal symptoms. The patient awakens in a better state of mind for rehabilitation.
Detoxification is only one part of treatment and, by itself, does little to change the behaviors associated with drug abuse. Rehabilitation helps the individual to stop using drugs and return to his normal life. Rehabilitation can reduce criminal activity, improve social interactions and reshape unhealthy thought patterns.
Rehabilitation can take place at an outpatient clinic or in a residential setting. Outpatient rehabilitation usually includes regular meetings at a clinic or doctor's office. Inpatient rehabilitation provides highly structured treatment in a long-term residential setting lasting as long as six months or a year.
Even with skilled treatment, relapse rates for drug addiction are 40 to 60 percent. Relapse is not an indication that treatment has failed - substance abuse is a chronic condition and, like all chronic illnesses, involves periods of relapse and remission. Relapse means treatment should be reinstated or modified, or that the patient should participate in another form of treatment.
Substance abuse is a complex but treatable condition that affects each individual in a slightly different way; no single treatment is right for everyone. Effective rehabilitation addresses the individual's multiple needs, not just his Xolox withdrawal.
Most forms of rehabilitation include behavior modification and individual, group and family counseling. Medications are an important part of the treatment plan, as many people with substance abuse problems also suffer mental or physical problems that could interfere with recovery efforts.
No matter which form of treatment the individual chooses, it must be readily available to encourage participation and completion. It is critical to remain in treatment long enough to detoxify the body and change the patient's behavior enough to reduce his risk for relapse. Rehabilitation does not need to be voluntary to be effective - many individuals under legal coercion remain in rehabilitation long enough for treatment to be successful and never return to drug abuse.
Xolox withdrawal is a dynamic condition and an individual's treatment plan must reflect these ever-changing needs. A trained counselor will create a treatment plan based on an initial assessment of the patient's condition then monitor the patient's progress and modify the treatment plan accordingly. The counselor will require periodic drug testing, as lapses do occur.
The counselor may screen the patient for infectious diseases. She may provide risk-reduction education and help the patient change those behaviors that increase the risk for contracting or spreading these diseases.