- Generic Name or Active Ingridient: Oxycodone Hydrochloride And Acetaminophen
Xolox addiction and other substance abuse problems is a serious issue in the United States. Addiction to prescription painkillers like Xolox is now more common than heroin addiction. In 2010, 1.9 million Americans were addicted to prescription painkillers while only 359,000 people were addicted to heroin.
Admission rates for opioids other than heroin reflect this trend towards prescription opioid abuse, rising 414 percent in one just a single decade. In 1997, only seven individuals in every 100,000 people needed treatment for non-heroin opioid abuse; in 2007, the need for treatment grew to 36 people per 100,000.
This uptick in substance abuse and treatment for problems like Xolox addiction could be due to widespread use of opioid painkillers. People in the United States take more opioid pain relievers than anyone else on earth; while Americans represent roughly 5 percent of global population, they consume 80 percent of the world's opioid supply.
Information about Xolox
Xolox is distributed by Rebel Distributers Corp in a tablet form intended for oral administration. Doctors prescribe Xolox to patients who are experiencing moderate to moderately severe pain.
Xolox contains 10 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride and 500 mg of acetaminophen.
Oxycodone is an psychotherapeutic drug that works in a way similar to morphine to treat pain, calm anxiety and cause euphoria. Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic drug, created from thebaine extracted from the opium poppy plant, Papaver somniferum.
Using excessive doses of Xolox or using Xolox for non-medical reasons increases the risk for developing Xolox addiction. Using a drug for non-medical reasons means to take Xolox to get high or to treat a condition other than the one the doctor had intended. In 2010, 7 million people took psychotherapeutic drugs like Xolox for non-medical reasons.
Risk for Abuse
Non-medical use raises the risk for developing Xolox addiction. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, or DEA, ranks drugs according to each substance's relative risk for abuse. Heroin is a schedule I narcotic, meaning it presents no medical value and a high risk for abuse. The cough suppressant Robitussin AC is a schedule V because it poses little risk for abuse.
The DEA classifies all drugs containing oxycodone, including Xolox, as a schedule II narcotic. As a schedule II drug, Xolox poses the same risk for abuse as raw opium. To reduce the risk for abuse and addiction, Xolox is available only with a doctor's prescription.
The Definition of Addiction
Xolox is a neurological disease that affects the brain's reward, motivation and memory circuits. Dysfunction in these areas leads to the physical, cognitive and behavioral characteristics that doctors look for when considering a diagnosis of Xolox addiction. Cravings and drug-seeking behaviors are the hallmarks of addiction.
An addicted person is unable to abstain from Xolox use consistently. She will crave Xolox when her supplies run low and will pathologically seek out more oxycodone, despite knowing the negative impact of drug abuse.
She may exhibit other behavioral control issues, including criminal activity or trouble at work or school. An addicted individual may display a dysfunctional emotional response, getting upset in relatively calm situations or seeming unmoved during traumatic events. She might seem unaware that her behaviors cause significant problems in her own life and in her relationships with others. The erratic behaviors associated with Xolox addiction can alienate the addict from friends and family who could encourage treatment.
Xolox addiction is a primary disease, meaning it arises by itself and not as the result of another condition or event. Xolox addiction is chronic, lasting months or years. Like other chronic diseases, Xolox addiction frequently involves periods of relapse and remission.
Without treatment, Xolox addiction can lead to disability and premature death. Long-term Xolox use increases the risk for side effects or toxic overdose. Chronic drug abuse is associated with infectious diseases including tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C.
Addiction versus Dependence
Linked through drug abuse, Xolox addition and dependence are two distinct and separate conditions. It is possible for a person to be addicted to Xolox, physically dependent upon it, or both.
Opioid Dependence and Tolerance
The body adapts to Xolox by altering itself to maintain stability. Long-term use causes the body to rely on a certain level of oxycodone to feel "normal." When oxycodone levels fall, the body struggles to regain its chemical balance, a process doctors call detoxification. The individual experiences the detoxification process through physical and psychological symptoms known as withdrawal. Detoxification causes withdrawal symptoms in an opioid-dependent person.
Taking Xolox for a long time may increase the body's tolerance to oxycodone. Someone who has developed a high tolerance to opioids must take higher doses of Xolox more frequently to relieve pain or to get high. Low tolerance means a person is more sensitive to the effects of Xolox.
A doctor will diagnose a person as being opioid-dependent if the patient suffers withdrawal symptoms a few hours after his last dose of Xolox. A physician will say the patient has a Xolox addiction if the person craves oxycodone and engages in drug-seeking behavior when supplies run low.
Drug Seeking and Diversion
Xolox addiction causes the individual to come up with creative ways to keep a steady supply of oxycodone. Drug seeking behavior includes doctor shopping, which is visiting several physicians to get multiple Xolox prescriptions. An addict might alter Xolox prescriptions or present fake prescriptions at pharmacies.
Some individuals purchase Xolox or other oxycodone-containing products illegally from drug dealers. Others purchase Xolox on the internet. Many get oxycodone free from friends or family, as it is common to keep extra prescription painkillers in the medicine cabinet "just in case."
The DEA refers to these activities as diversion, referring to the way these practices divert drugs from their intended therapeutic purposes.
Addiction: What Family Members Should Know
Family members should know that Xolox addiction is a disease and not an indication of poor moral character. It is important that the family avoid blaming the individual for his condition. Counseling can help family members create a supportive environment for the addicted individual.
The home should become a drug-free zone. Family members should know that 10 percent of people who try drugs like Xolox become addicted. A combination of genetics and environmental factors influence the development and manifestation of Xolox addiction.
Family members should know they share an increased genetic risk for developing an addiction. Genetics account for about half of a person's vulnerability to addiction. There is not a single "addiction gene" but an interaction between specific groups of genes can make a person more susceptible to the development of addiction.
No one is born doomed to be an addict; environmental and developmental factors play a strong role in determining who will become addicted and how they will manifest Xolox addiction.
A person's environment includes his family, friends, his socioeconomic status and his quality of life; each of these personal environments influences the development of Xolox addiction and other substance abuse problems. Environmental factors such as peer pressure, physical or sexual abuse, stress and poor parenting can increase the risk for drug abuse leading to addiction. Many individuals use Xolox or other drugs as self-medication to reduce these environmental stresses.
Xolox addiction can develop at any age but the earlier substance abuse begins, the more likely it will progress to something serious. The brains of adolescents are still developing in the areas that govern decision-making, judgment and self-control, making teenagers and young adults more prone to poor choices when presented with the opportunity to take drugs.
Family members should know that Xolox addiction causes collateral damage that affects everyone in the household in a negative way. Collateral damage can include financial hardship from loss of income, diverted funds, legal bills and high hospital bills from infectious diseases, side effects, toxic overdose and death. Criminal activity may result in prison and loss of the family's home or car. Other collateral damage might include divorce, loss of child custody and homelessness.
It is important that family members know keeping Xolox in the home without a prescription is illegal and unsafe. Between 2004 and 2005, about 71,000 children went to the emergency department because of medication poisonings other than recreational use; 80 percent of these cases were unsupervised children discovering and consuming medications like Xolox.
Addiction: What Parents Should Know
Parents should know that early drug use increases the risk for addiction sometime in life. Parents should also know that prescription drug use is relatively common in teenagers and young adults. This could be because of widespread availability of opioid pain relievers and that there is a misconception about the relative safety of prescription medications as compared to illicit substances; oxycodone is everywhere and young people think it is safe.
In a recent national survey, about 3 percent of respondents between the ages of 12 and 17 years said they were currently using a prescription drug like Xolox non-medically. The number of people admitting drug use rose in older populations: 5.9 percent of 18 to 25 year olds reported using psychotherapeutic drug the month before.
Parents should know that the child's risk for Xolox addiction increases during times of transition, such as moving, divorce or going to a new school. Peer pressure can be an important motivating factor during these periods of transition as the child attempts to fit it to new surroundings.
It is normal for a teenager to have the urge to try new things. Exploration is natural and healthy for the adolescent's development and personal growth. When misdirected, however, these temptations may lead the youngster into experimenting with Xolox or other drugs.
A teenager's brain is still developing, especially the areas of his brain responsible for judgment and decision-making. This may limit a young person's ability to make a sound decision about taking Xodol.
Drug abuse disrupts a person's brain function in areas critical to his motivation, memory, learning, behavior control and judgment. Dysfunction in these areas causes teenagers to have trouble at school or with family, poor grades and health problems including mood or mental disorders. Teenagers with substance abuse problems often have trouble with the juvenile justice system.
Signs of Addiction in a Young Person
Parents should know the signs of addiction in a young person. Doctors normally look for characteristic changes in behavior when considering a diagnosis of Xolox addiction, but because it is normal for a child to gain and lose interest in a number of things as he goes through various developmental phases, it may be more difficult to recognize the signs of addiction in a young person.
A child addicted to Xolox may show an unusual loss of interest in things that should continue to be important, like playing with a favorite pet or engaging in a life-long hobby. An addicted adolescent may show a sudden decline in her academic, athletic or job performance. She may seem unmotivated and lacking energy, even for a teenager. She may disappear frequently and have trouble explaining her absences.
Xolox addiction is expensive, especially for a teenager or young adult working at entry-level positions. An addicted adolescent will have money problems that seem advanced for her age. Parents should be alert to money or items missing from the home.
Caring for a Family Member with an Addiction
As with any chronic condition, caring for a family member with an addiction requires a long-term commitment and dedication. Family members are a critical part of the recovery team, providing physical and emotional support through periods of remission and relapse.
Family members suffer collateral damage of Xolox addiction and are often the first to intervene. It is common for a family member to locate the treatment facility the addicted individual eventually attends. Each member of the family should encourage the addicted individual to engage in and complete treatment.
Holding an Intervention
Recovery from Xolox addiction often begins when the addicted individual recognizes the damage his drug abuse causes. This realization sometimes occurs after one or more family members intervene. An intervention can be an informal and intimate discussion between the addict and a concerned individual, or an intervention can be a formal procedure involving several people with planned speeches.
Anyone concerned about the addicted individual can propose an intervention and form a planning group. This group of people will gather information about Xolox addiction and interview treatment centers. Planning group members can arrange ahead of time to enroll the addicted individual in a treatment plan immediately after the intervention. An intervention for Xolox addiction is an emotionally charged situation that can end in anger and resentment if handled poorly.
The group may ask for professional help planning the intervention, especially if the addicted individual has a history of violence, serious mental illness or suicidal thoughts or behavior. Professional guidance is helpful if the individual is using multiple mood-altering drugs or is in denial that could lead to anger. It is wise to consult a professional if there is a chance the addicted person is likely to react violently or in a self-destructive way.
The planning group should form an intervention team and pick a specific date, time and location for the intervention. The addicted person must not learn of the intervention ahead of time. The intervention team should include four to six people the addicted person likes, respects and trusts. Inviting people the addicted person dislikes or mistrusts can derail intervention efforts. The planning group should avoid choosing anyone that uses drugs or is likely to sabotage the intervention.
Each person on the intervention team should plan what he will say during the intervention and write it down. He should decide on the consequences if the addicted person does not accept treatment on the spot. Consequences could be requiring the addicted individual to move out of the family home or stay away from the children.
Every member of the intervention team should plan to mention specific incidences of when Xolox abuse has caused problems and discuss the toll drug abuse has caused. Intervention team members should express care and concern along with the positive expectations the loved one can recovery from Xolox addiction.
On the day of the intervention, a team member invites the addicted individual to the pre-determined intervention location without revealing the reason. One at a time, each member of the intervention team reads his written passage expressing his concerns and feelings. The intervention team then presents the addicted person with a treatment option and asks him to accept the option on the spot. Each member of the intervention team then reads aloud the actions he will take if the addicted person does not accept treatment.
It is important that the planning group and intervention teams follow up to ensure the addicted individual engages in and completes treatment. If the addicted person refuses treatment or quits treatment, it is imperative that intervention team members enact the promised consequences immediately and completely.
If the individual accepts treatment for his Xolox addiction, the family must create a supportive network that helps the individual participate in and complete treatment. As with any chronic disease, recovery from addiction takes a tremendous amount of time and effort. Family members can help in the recovery process by taking over household chores, providing transportation to counseling sessions or taking care of children during the detoxification process or counseling sessions.
Family members should expect cycles of remission and relapse. Relapses are typical of any chronic disease; relapse does not mean recovery efforts have failed. During relapses, each family member should encourage the individual to return to treatment.
Rehabilitation can halt the progression of Xolox addiction at any time - do not wait until a loved one has hit rock bottom before taking action. Rock bottom is a dangerous place that can include social isolation, homelessness, prison, infectious diseases and death.
Counseling teaches family members how to support someone battling Xolox addiction without enabling his disease. It is normal to want to shield a loved one from the devastation his disease causes but recovery from Xolox addiction often begins when the individual recognizes the consequences of his drug abuse.
Signs of Addiction
Xolox addiction is a neurological disease that causes specific changes in the way a person behaves, thinks and feels. When considering a diagnosis of Xolox addiction, doctors look for these characteristic changes. Xolox addiction is self-perpetuating in the way it causes social isolation, separating addicts from those friends and family members who could best recognize these characteristic behavioral, cognitive and emotional changes.
Someone battling Xolox addiction will use this drug more often and at higher quantities than she intends. She may voice a persistent desire to quit or cut down, even as she consumes more Xolox.
She loses an excessive amount of time looking for Xolox, getting high or recovering, negatively affecting her ability to work or take care of personal responsibilities at home or school. Her behavioral repertoire narrows so that she eventually participates only in activities that result in getting high. This has a negative effect on her relationships with others, including friends and family.
Someone addicted to Xolox will continue to abuse this drug, despite the physical, psychological and social problems Xolox addiction causes. She might try to quit several times, but seem ultimately unwilling or unable to stop using Xolox.
The addicted individual becomes preoccupied with substance abuse to the point of thinking about nothing else. She holds an incorrect view of the relative risks and benefits of Xolox so that she sees only the positive attributes of this drug. She may blame all her problems on other people or events, rather than recognizing that her troubles are the predictable consequence of Xolox addiction.
While doctors prescribe Xolox to relieve pain, some individuals take Xolox to relieve stress or to get high. Xolox addiction increases sensitivity to stress by recruiting the brain's stress system; addicted individuals perceive more stress even in relatively calm situations.
The neurological changes associated with Xolox addiction can make it difficult for the addict to identify her feelings or describing her emotions to others. This emotional disconnect interferes with the individual's ability to interact with others.
While Xolox addiction can strike anyone, there does seem to be some gender differences in the development and manifestation of substance abuse. Men are twice as likely to abuse illicit drugs such as heroin, cocaine or marijuana. In 2010, 5.9 percent of females admitted to using illicit drugs, as compared to 11.6 percent of males. Many more men than women die from prescription painkiller overdose each year.
Depending on the criteria of the study and type of treatment facility the subjects participated in, researchers have come to mixed conclusions regarding the gender differences in treatment outcomes for substance abuse problems including Xolox addiction. For example, women were less likely to complete treatment at outpatient non-methadone or nonhospital residential facilities but had better results than do men when enrolled in facilities that provided a combination of types of care.
Women may face special obstacles when considering treatment, including an ability to pay for quality treatment or finding childcare during the mother's appointments for detoxification and rehabilitation. Social stigmas may prevent women from admitting drug use or seeking treatment for Xolox addiction.
Treatment for Xolox addiction can help the individual stop using opioids, avoid relapse and recover his life. Left untreated or poorly treated, Xolox addiction can cause disability and premature death. In 2010, more than 23 million people in the United States needed treatment for drug or alcohol abuse. Of those that needed help, only about 11 percent of those who needed it got it in a specialty facility.
There are two phases of treatment for Xolox addiction: detoxification and rehabilitation. The detoxification phase is the medical process of lowering oxycodone levels and dealing with the ensuing withdrawal symptoms. Rehabilitation focuses on changing the behaviors commonly associated with Xolox addiction and giving the individual the tools he needs to abstain from drug use when the opportunity arises.
The detoxification process starts when the individual skips a dose of Xolox, takes an inadequate dose or uses a drug that lowers oxycodone levels. Opioid withdrawal symptoms last for five or more days with the most severe discomfort occurring on or about the fourth day. Without intervention, withdrawal symptoms fade by themselves and do not reappear unless the individual relapses to opioid dependence.
An opioid-dependent person can stop the detoxification process and halt withdrawal symptoms by taking drugs that mimic the effects of oxycodone or by relapsing to Xolox use. Overwhelming withdrawal symptoms force many individuals to relapse, especially if detoxification occurs without some form of medical intervention.
Consumers who have used Xolox continuously for more than a few weeks should not stop taking this medication abruptly. To avoid withdrawal symptoms, these individuals should taper Xolox use over a two-week period. Opioid dependence strikes everyone differently; some people are able to taper Xolox use while overwhelming withdrawal symptoms prevent others from weaning themselves from this medication.
Those who cannot taper Xolox use may be tempted to quit "cold turkey." Doctors call this process self-detoxification. Cold turkey refers to the appearance of the skin during the detoxification process: pale, cold, clammy with goose bumps, resembling plucked poultry.
Without medicine to ease withdrawal symptoms or professional guidance to address complications and psychological aspects of Xolox withdrawal, self-detoxification is a long, grueling and humiliating process.
The Thomas Recipe
Some individuals try to control withdrawal symptoms by developing a homemade treatment plan that including anti-withdrawal medications. One such remedy is The Thomas Plan, which calls Valium, Librium, Ativan or Xanax to calm anxiety and help with sleep along with Imodium to curb diarrhea. Vitamin B6 and supplements plus hot baths soothes achy muscles and restless leg syndrome. The Thomas Recipe calls for L-Tyrosine for a boost of energy to overcome malaise.
Homemade concoctions including The Thomas Recipe eases symptoms somewhat but they do not shorten detoxification process or reduce the risk for complications.
The detoxification process is not usually life threatening but extreme withdrawal symptoms may result in dangerous complications. A person might suffer aspiration in which he vomits then inhales stomach contents into the lungs. Aspiration could result in fluid in the lungs and lung infection. Severe and prolonged vomiting, diarrhea and sweating could cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
Relapse is the primary complication associated with Xolox addiction. Overpowering withdrawal symptoms and behavioral control issues caused by neurological dysfunction often forces the individual back to drug abuse and Xolox addiction.
Returning to drug abuse after any amount of detoxification increases the risk for overdose. The detoxification process reduces the body's tolerance to oxycodone; as the result, the individual is more sensitive to the effects of Xolox. It is possible for someone to overdose on a smaller amount than he used to take before experiencing even moderate withdrawal symptoms.
Xolox addiction requires the addict to use large doses of oxycodone for a long time; this excessive exposure to Xolox increases the risk for toxic overdose. It is possible to overdose on either the oxycodone in Xolox or the acetaminophen; both types of overdose are medical emergencies. In 2008, 15,000 people died from overdoses of prescription painkillers like Xolox. Acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure.
Opioid overdose causes the serious breathing problem, respiratory depression, which is a condition where the lungs do not adequately exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide and other blood gases. Symptoms of respiratory depression include slow or shallow breathing, irregular breathing problems and a blue tint around the eyes, mouth and fingertips.
Toxic drug overdose requires immediate professional care. Even in cases of suspected overdose, transport the victim to the nearest hospital or urgent care facility.
Emergency room physicians will administer 0.4 mg to 2 mg of naloxone intravenously to reduce oxycodone levels rapidly. If acetaminophen levels are high, emergency department physicians will administer the antidote, N-acetylcysteine. Nurses will establish an airway to help the patient breathe and pump the stomach or introduce charcoal to absorb excess Xolox. Nurses will monitor the patient for complications and render life-saving care as needed.
Drug Replacement Therapy
Individuals who are not in immediate danger of overdose may choose drug replacement therapy, or DRT, as a treatment for Xolox addiction. DRT drugs, such as methadone, Suboxone and buprenorphine, mimics opioids but do not product euphoria; as a result, the patient does not feel withdrawal symptoms but he does not get high.
DRT allows the patient to engage in behavior modification and therapy before attempting detoxification. After the individual learns how to live without Xolox, he weans himself from the DRT drug by taking successively smaller doses further apart.
DRT allows patients to continue working and living at home while participating in rehabilitation but there are also some drawbacks. Many people have trouble quitting the replacement drugs, essentially trading one addiction for another. DRT can be dangerous - methadone accounts for one-third of opioid pain reliever deaths even though sales of methadone are small compared to other opioid analgesics.
Many institutions now offer inpatient detoxification procedures. During standard detoxification, physicians administer naloxone to reduce oxycodone levels along with a variety of anti-withdrawal drugs. Nurses monitor the patient for complications and offer supportive care as needed.
While the detoxification process reduces oxycodone levels and eases withdrawal symptoms, it does not shorted the duration of the procedure nor does it address the psychological, behavioral or social aspects of Xolox addiction. The lengthy and demoralizing detoxification process leaves many patients feeling incapable or unworthy of recovery.
Rapid detox is the most humane form of detoxification available today. Board-certified anesthesiologists who receive training in rapid detox administer sedatives and anesthesia alongside the standard detoxification and anti-withdrawal medications. The patient dozes in a comfortable "twilight sleep," unaware of the grueling detoxification process.
Detoxification is only the first step towards recovery from Xolox addiction and it only addresses the physical aspects of opioid dependence. The detoxification process does not change the behaviors associated with Xolox addiction. Rehabilitation encourages participation in the treatment process, modifies behaviors and attitudes towards Xolox use and promotes a healthy lifestyle.
Rehabilitation can occur at an outpatient clinic or at an inpatient residential facility. Outpatient clinics offer weekly or monthly visits with a trained professional for individual, family or group counseling. Residential programs offer highly structured, long-term behavioral modification lasting 6 to 12 months in an inpatient setting.
The goal of any treatment plan is to stop drug use and return individual to his normal life. Rehabilitation can curb criminal activity, improve the individual's performance on the job, relationships with friends and family, and restore cognitive functioning lost through the neurological changes associated with Xolox addiction.
As with any chronic condition, there will be periods of relapse and remission. Even with treatment, someone battling a Xolox addiction faces a 40 to 60 percent chance of relapse. Relapse is not an indication that treatment has failed: relapse is a sign that treatment should be reinstated or modified, or that the individual should engage in a different type of treatment.
Everyone experiences Xolox addiction a little differently, so no single treatment is right for everyone. Treatment must address the complex needs of the individual and not just her Xolox addiction. Many treatment programs include behavior modification along with individual, family or group counseling. Medications are an important part of treatment, especially for those with physical or mental problems that could interfere with therapy.
Xolox addiction is a complex but treatable disease that causes neurological changes and brain dysfunction; treatment reverses some of these changes and restores behavioral, cognitive and neurological function.
No matter which type of treatment the individual chooses, the treatment needs to be readily available to encourage participation and completion. It is critical to remain in treatment long enough to restore neurological and behavioral function enough to prevent relapse.
The rehabilitation counselor will develop a treatment plan based on initial assessments of the patient's condition. The counselor will monitor the patient's progress continually and modify the treatment plan as necessary to ensure it meets the patient's changing needs. Counselors will require periodic drug testing, as relapses can occur during treatment.
The counselor may also request patient testing for infectious diseases and provide education to reduce the patient's risk for contracting or spreading these diseases.