- Generic Name or Active Ingridient: Hydrocodone
- Muscle aches
- Watery eyes
- Runny nose
- Abdominal cramping
- Dilated pupils
- Goose bumps
Information about Xodol
According to the Institute of Addiction Medicine, almost 2 million Americans are physically dependent on drugs like Xodol; each of these individuals will require detoxification at some point.
Doctors prescribe Xodol to relieve moderate to severe pain. Most people use Xodol as directed and dispose of unused doses when they are no longer in pain. Some people, however, use Xodol for non-medical reasons. To use a drug non-medically means to take it to get high, or to treat a condition other than the one the doctor had in mind when she wrote the prescription. Non-medical use increases the risk someone will become dependent on drugs and require detoxification; about 5 million Americans use painkillers for non-medical use every year.
Xodol contains hydrocodone and acetaminophen; each ingredient works slightly differently to provide a more complete analgesia than either drug could alone. Hydrocodone works with the neurological system in a way that could cause physical dependence requiring detoxification. Acetaminophen does not work in a manner that causes dependence requiring detoxification, but long-term Xodol use can cause dangerously high acetaminophen levels.
Hydrocodone is a synthetic drug. Medical scientists classify hydrocodone as an opioid because drug manufacturers make it from derivatives of the opium poppy plant. Hydrocodone works like other opioids, such as morphine and codeine, to relieve pain and to cause dependence requiring detoxification.
Opioids act directly on the nervous system to modify how the brain interprets pain signals. Opioids cause other neurological effects. Most immediately notable are sedation, relaxation, and euphoria; these neurological effects makes Xodol a target for recreational drug users. Opioids cause other, less apparent neurological effects that the consumer may not intend or desire, such as mood changes and clouded thought patterns.
With continual use, some of these neurological changes become more deeply embedded and permanent to alter the individual’s thinking, emotions, and behavior. These alterations can negatively affect a person’s ability to work, take care of personal responsibilities, and interact with others. In time, this could lead to job loss and financial crisis, separation from spouse or children, homelessness, criminal activity and incarceration, illness and overdose, and death.
The hydrocodone in Xodol acts on other body systems to cause unwanted or undesirable effects during every day use and during detoxification. For example, opioids stiffen smooth muscle groups to make them less functional. Xodol acts on the smooth intestinal muscles to slow digestion and cause constipation, stiffens smooth muscles in blood vessel walls to affect blood pressure, and affects the smooth muscles in the skin and eyes to cause other consequences. During Xodol detoxification, the smooth muscle action causes withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea, high blood pressure, sweating, goose bumps, and dilated pupils.
Hydrocodone is the most frequently prescribed opioid in the country, with pharmacists filling more than 139 million prescriptions for products containing hydrocodone in 2010. While most patients use hydrocodone products as prescribed, nearly 10 percent of Americans use hydrocodone for non-medical reasons. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency associates hydrocodone with more drug abuse than any other legal or illegal opioids. This drug abuse increases the risk for dependence requiring detoxification.
Acetaminophen is not an opioid drug and does not cause dependence, but the effects of long-term acetaminophen can cause serious illness or complicate Xodol detoxification. The most serious effect of chronic acetaminophen use is acute liver failure.
Dependence, Detoxification and Withdrawal Symptoms
Anyone can become dependent on the hydrocodone in Xodol, whether he uses this drug for therapeutic purposes or for non-medical reasons. The body adapts to the presence of some toxic substances, including opioids like Xodol. With chronic use, the body begins to depend on a certain level of hydrocodone to feel normal - the individual becomes opioid-dependent.
When hydrocodone levels drop, the opioid-dependent body struggles to recover from the toxic effects of hydrocodone and adapt to life without opioids. Doctors refer to this as detoxification. The opioid-dependent body experiences detoxification through unpleasant physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms.
Xodol Withdrawal Symptoms
Xodol withdrawal symptoms tend to appear in two waves, with the first set of symptoms beginning a few hours after the last dose of Xodol.
Early withdrawal symptoms include:
Other withdrawal symptoms may develop later, including:
Unless interrupted, these withdrawal symptoms last five or more days with the worst symptoms appearing on or about the fourth day. Withdrawal symptoms fade as the body completes Xodol detoxification and do not return unless the individual relapses to an opioid-dependent state.
Someone can use a variety of non-opioid drugs to reduce the severity of Xodol withdrawal symptoms without interrupting the detoxification process. He could stop withdrawal symptoms completely by taking more Xodol but this halts detoxification, reverses the benefits of detoxification, and returns the individual to a drug-dependent state.
Benefits of Xodol Detoxification
Xodol detoxification brings the participant to an opioid-free state and cleanses his body of the toxic effects of hydrocodone. Detoxification begins to reverse some of physical and neurological effects of chronic drug use in a way that makes the patient feel healthier, think more clearly, and make sound decisions about his recovery.
Detoxification is just one part of the recovery process and, by itself, does little to change the behaviors associated with drug abuse. Most opioid-dependent people benefit from rehabilitation that teaches them how to lead a drug-free life. Rehabilitation often includes counseling and behavior modification where patients learn to recognize situations that may lead to drug abuse and how to refuse drugs when offered. Xodol detoxification stops withdrawal symptoms permanently, allowing the individual to focus on rehabilitation.
Xodol detoxification helps patients remain in rehabilitation long enough to reverse the neurological effects of drug abuse. Detoxification promotes abstinence, reducing the frequency and severity of drug abuse episodes.
Types of Xodol Detoxification
Xodol detoxification also refers to the medical process of lowering hydrocodone levels and relieving the subsequent withdrawal symptoms. Xodol detoxification can occur at home or with the help of a specialty facility, such as an outpatient clinic, hospital, mental health institution or dedicated detoxification unit. Only about 10 percent of people seek help from such a specialty facility - everyone else engaged in self-help, sought help from a private physician, received treatment in an emergency department, or detoxified while incarcerated in a jail or prison.
Each of these treatment approaches is viable, so long as it brings the patient to an opioid-free state safely and effectively. Every person becomes dependent on opioids in a slightly different way and will have different needs when it comes to detoxification.
When a doctor determines it is time for a patient to discontinue Xodol, she might suggest the patient wean himself from hydrocodone by taking smaller doses each day. This tapering method works well for those who have been opioid-dependent for only a short time, have no underlying conditions that might cause complications, and who is likely to suffer only minor withdrawal symptoms.
Persistent withdrawal symptoms prevent some people from tapering Xodol. An individual might try quitting cold turkey by discontinuing Xodol abruptly; he should expect severe withdrawal symptoms.
Natural remedies can reduce the severity of withdrawal symptoms. Cayenne or chamomile can ease diarrhea, for example, while peppermint or ginger soothe nausea. Meditation, yoga, acupuncture, or massages soothes anxiety, relaxes the body, and eases muscle aches.
Some people create homemade treatment plans that include prescription and non-prescription drugs to ease Xodol detoxification. One well-known remedy is The Thomas Recipe. It calls for a prescription benzodiazepine, such as Xanax or Librium, to calm nerves and promote sleep. The Thomas Recipe also suggests Imodium for diarrhea, vitamin B6 and hot baths for body aches, and L-Tyrosine for a burst of much-needed energy towards the end of Xodol detoxification.
Medical detoxification, sometimes called medication-assisted detoxification, uses opioid or non-opioid drugs to control the onset of Xodol detoxification and manage withdrawal symptoms.
Outpatient An outpatient clinic usually offers opioid replacement drugs, such as methadone and buprenorphine, to control Xodol detoxification. Methadone and buprenorphine are opioids that mimic the effects of hydrocodone enough to prevent severe withdrawal symptoms. At therapeutic doses, methadone and buprenorphine do not get the patient high.
Patients start out on a high induction dose of the replacement drug - just enough to cover withdrawal symptoms - before reducing methadone or buprenorphine dosages during the tapering phase.
Outpatient detoxification is right for anyone who has been dependent on Xodol longer than one year, did not respond well to self-detoxification efforts, and who do not want to spend time at an inpatient facility.
A German chemist first synthesized methadone in 1939 in a search for a safe, effective pain reliever. Today, doctors around the world still prescribe methadone as an analgesic. Physicians in the U.S. usually reserve methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence.
In the early days of treatment, outpatient clinics offered methadone maintenance programs to heroin addicts. Patients would come to an approved clinic once a day to drink a beverage containing methadone; the effects of one dose of methadone last 24 to 36 hours. Methadone maintenance delays detoxification while the individual participates in rehabilitation. Once the patient learns how to live without drugs, he weans himself from methadone by tapering dosages. About 100,000 Americans use this type of methadone maintenance program.
Outpatient clinicians now offer methadone as an aid to tapering. The clinician will start the patient on an induction dosage of about 10 to 15 mg of methadone and increase dosages by 10 mg each day until the patient no longer experiences withdrawal symptoms. The patient remains on this dosage for a few days then reduces dosages during the tapering phase.
Outpatient clinics may prescribe buprenorphine as part of a maintenance program or as an aid to tapering. Buprenorphine is a sublingual medication - the patient places a buprenorphine tablet under his tongue, where it dissolves and enters the bloodstream at the appropriate rate.
It is possible to abuse buprenorphine by dissolving the tablet before injecting the solution into a vein. Drug manufacturers discourage intravenous abuse by adding naloxone to the brand name buprenorphine preparation, Suboxone. Sublingual naloxone use has little effect but intravenous administration of naloxone neutralizes buprenorphine so the consumer does not get high. Furthermore, intravenous naloxone administration causes withdrawal symptoms in an opioid-dependent consumer.
Inpatient Xodol detoxification Inpatient Xodol detoxification uses medical grade non-opioid medications to lower hydrocodone levels and relieve withdrawal symptoms. An inpatient physician would administer naltrexone or another drug to initiate the detoxification process, hydroxyzine or promethazine to ease nausea, Loperamide for diarrhea, and clonidine for watery eyes, sweating, and other withdrawal symptoms.
Inpatient Xodol detoxification usually includes screening for any underlying conditions that may cause complications along with close patient supervision and an immediate response to any complications that do develop.
This type of inpatient care is appropriate for anyone who suffers from severe withdrawal symptoms, have co-existing medical conditions or substance abuse problems, or for those who have not responded well to less restrictive forms of treatment.
Inpatient Xodol detoxification is necessary for anyone recovering from an overdose or who has a medical condition that makes outpatient care unsafe. Inpatient care is necessary for those with severe psychiatric problems, such as acute psychosis or depression with suicidal thoughts.
Rapid detox safely and effectively cleanses the body of the toxic effects of Xodol in the fastest time possible. Rapid detox anesthesiologists sedate and anesthetize patients before administering the usual detoxification and anti-withdrawal drugs so the patient rests in a comfortable “twilight sleep” during Xodol detoxification. Patients awaken a few hours later, unaware of the grueling withdrawal symptoms that prevented them from completing Xodol detoxification in the past.
Our detoxification center: Who we are and what we do
We are a group of highly qualified, board-certified anesthesiologists and other medical professionals who receive advanced training in detoxification procedures including rapid detox. We have helped thousands of people complete detoxification since opening the doors of our fully accredited hospital more than a decade ago.
We prescreen patients before developing an individualized treatment plan that may include rapid detox. After completing Xodol detoxification, patients may continue recovery in our qualified aftercare center.
Comparison of Detoxification Approaches
Opioid dependence is a traumatic time and choosing between the various treatment approaches can be quite confusing. Many people find it helpful to compare the treatments to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Without costly anti-withdrawal drugs and professional care, self-detoxification is the least expensive way to achieve a drug-free state. However, without proper medication or a professional treatment plan, self-detoxification can result in severe withdrawal symptoms and complications. Self-detoxification does bring the patient to an opioid-free state in a relatively short time, especially when compared to outpatient care.
Outpatient detoxification includes drugs and professional care to reduce withdrawal symptoms and complications, but the use of opioids slows down the detoxification process. Patients may remain in treatment for weeks.
Inpatient Xodol detoxification provides the greatest protection from withdrawal symptoms and complications. This approach brings the patient to an opioid-free state in about 4 days, compared with an average of 197 days for medication-assisted therapy.
Rapid detox is the most humane and efficient approach, offering fast and complete Xodol detoxification. Rapid detox brings the patient to a drug-free state in hours rather than days or months. Rapid detox frees the patient from the uncomfortable and demoralizing withdrawal symptoms that interfere with recovery.
Detox Possible Complications
The detoxification process is not usually a life-threatening procedure but long-term or acute drug abuse, severe withdrawal symptoms, pregnancy, co-existing alcohol or drug problems, and other medical conditions can cause dangerous complications.
Xodol detoxification can cause pain to return in patients who take this drug to relieve discomfort associated with an illness, injury or surgical procedure.
The primary complication associated with all forms of Xodol detoxification is relapse. Some people take more Xodol to stop the pain of withdrawal; others relapse sometime after completing detoxification.
Someone who relapses during Xodol detoxification or shortly after completing the process is at higher risk for suffering an overdose. The detoxification process makes the body more sensitive to the effects of hydrocodone, so that smaller doses of Xodol produce stronger results. This means someone could potentially overdose on a smaller amount of Xodol than he took just hours earlier, before experiencing even minor withdrawal symptoms for a short time.
Opioid overdose can be fatal. In 2008, 14,800 Americans died from an overdose of Xodol or another prescription opioid drug. That year, for the first time in U.S. history, more people died from prescription opioid overdose than from overdoses of cocaine and heroin combined.
Acetaminophen overdose is one of the most common causes of poisoning on earth. In the United States, acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure. For some people, taking any more than the recommended total daily dose of 4,000 mg of acetaminophen can lead to serious liver injury. Death may occur with doses exceeding 7,000 mg.
Some of these deaths are the result of intentional overdose or suicide attempt, but many acetaminophen overdoses are unintentional. Someone may not be aware that Xodol contains acetaminophen and inadvertently take multiple products containing this pain reliever. Acetaminophen is a common ingredient in many prescription and non-prescription drugs. In fact, Americans purchased more than 28 billion doses of products containing acetaminophen in 2005.
A person might accumulate toxic acetaminophen levels in an attempt to reduce severe and prolonged withdrawal symptoms caused by Xodol detoxification.
Possible Complications during Self-Detoxification
Uncontrolled, severe withdrawal symptoms during self-detoxification can cause complications. For example, extreme vomiting or diarrhea may cause dehydration and imbalances in potassium and other electrolytes.
Withdrawal symptoms can intensify a pre-existing illness, or an ailment may worsen or prolong withdrawal symptoms. For instance, Xodol detoxification may increase blood pressure and pulse to aggravate a heart condition. Detoxification may cause panic in someone with a pre-existing anxiety disorder.
Outpatient Detoxification Possible Complications
Methadone and buprenorphine control withdrawal symptoms, freeing outpatients from complications such as dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, but outpatient detoxification may cause a different set of complications.
A patient may become dependent on the replacement drug and have trouble discontinuing methadone or buprenorphine at the appropriate time. Some people remain on the replacement drug for months or years; a few use methadone or buprenorphine for the rest of their lives.
Methadone and buprenorphine are not entirely safe - it is possible to overdose on either medication. The number of methadone overdose deaths is rising at an astonishing rate: in 2009, there were 5.5 times as many deaths associated with methadone as there were in 1999. Methadone overdose now accounts for one-third of opioid pain reliever deaths even though methadone sales represent only 2 percent of the prescription painkiller market.
While considered safer than methadone, intravenous buprenorphine abuse increases the risk for dangerous, or even fatal, complications. The risk for death increases when the individual abuses buprenorphine along with benzodiazepines, like those suggests in The Thomas Recipe.
Inpatient Detoxification Possible Complications
Inpatient Xodol detoxification greatly reduces the risk for complications because it includes screening, professional treatment plans, medical grade detoxification and anti-withdrawal drugs, and close patient monitoring. Complications during inpatient Xodol detoxification are still possible, however, especially when the individual is struggling with withdrawal from multiple substances, especially alcohol, benzodiazepines, sedatives, and anti-anxiety drugs.
Possible Complications to Rapid Detox
Rarely, a patient could suffer an allergic reaction to the drugs used in the rapid detox procedure. Strong sedatives can complicate breathing, pulse, and blood pressure. Anyone receiving anesthesia might experience swelling, bruising, or infection at the injection site.
Myths about Xodol Detoxification
Scientists have been studying opioid detoxification for decades and have amassed a wealth of information about dependence and withdrawal. Despite this research, myths about detoxification prevent an untold number of people from getting the help they need to reach an opioid-free state. Patient education helps the individual ease the severity of withdrawal symptoms, reduce complications, and complete Xodol detoxification comfortably, safely, and effectively.
Myth: Self-detoxification is not usually a life-threatening procedure, so that means this method is always safe for everyone. Fact: Uncontrolled withdrawal symptoms, undiagnosed medical conditions, pregnancy, and co-existing substance abuse disorders can make Xodol detoxification unsafe for some people. Undiagnosed acute liver failure associated with chronic acetaminophen use can make self-detoxification from Xodol especially dangerous.
Myth: The prescription and non-prescription drugs used in The Thomas Recipe make Xodol detoxification safe. Fact: The Thomas Recipe can ease withdrawal symptoms but these drugs do not make the procedure safer. In fact, combining prescription and non-prescription medications can cause dangerous drug interactions, especially without the professional guidance of a physician or pharmacist.
Outpatient Detox Myths
Myth: Throwing opioid-dependent people in jail is more cost effective than providing treatment. Fact: Treatment is less expensive than incarceration. A year of methadone costs an average of $4,700 per patient while 12 months of imprisonment runs approximately $24,000 per inmate.
Myth: Methadone rots your teeth. Fact: Many drugs, including methadone, may cause a dry mouth that can promote the development of plaque leading to tooth decay and gum disease. Consumers can reduce this side effect of Xodol detoxification by drinking more water and improving dental hygiene habits.
Inpatient Xodol Detoxification Myths
Myth: Providing inpatient Xodol detoxification is a waste of a good hospital bed as drug dependence is an incurable disease. Fact: Anyone who struggles with a medical condition deserves humane treatment. Opioid dependence is a chronic disease but recovery is possible. Relapse rates for drug addiction are similar to those of other chronic diseases, such as high blood pressure, diabetes or asthma, somewhere between 40 and 60 percent.
Myth: Communities cannot afford to spend money on drug treatment programs right now. Fact: Communities cannot afford to ignore the potential financial returns of investing in drug treatment. Experts estimate a community can expect a return of $4 to $7 in reduced drug-related crime rates, criminal justice costs and theft. Factor in healthcare costs associated with dependence and the savings leap to $12 gained for every dollar spent.
Rapid Detox Myths
Myth: Pain and humiliation are important aspects of Xodol detoxification, as they teach the patient a lesson about abusing drugs. Rapid detox skips this step, robbing the patient of his due punishment. Fact: Medical treatment never involves punishing a patient for his condition. The uncomfortable and demoralizing aspects of Xodol detoxification can actually prevent someone from completing the process. Furthermore, many people become opioid dependent after using Xodol as prescribed to treat actual pain. Rapid detox is the most humane and efficient approach to medical detoxification because it spares patients the discomfort and embarrassment that may have prevented recovery in the past.
Myth: It takes weeks or months to complete Xodol detoxification. Fact: Rapid detox brings the patient to an opioid-free state in one to two hours.
Xodol Detoxification and Pregnancy Chronic Xodol consumption increases the risk a woman will contract or develop a medical condition that can complicate pregnancy. Opioid-dependent women are at higher risk for anemia, blood infections, heart conditions, hepatitis, and pneumonia. These conditions can cause complications for both a woman and her unborn baby during pregnancy, labor and delivery. Complications can include hemorrhage, slowed fetal growth, premature labor and delivery, spontaneous abortion, and fetal death.
Methadone reduces these complications and is currently the only approved treatment for opioid dependence in pregnant women, although a recent study published in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests buprenorphine may be acceptable.
Any baby born to a woman who uses opioids regularly during pregnancy may develop neonatal abstinence syndrome, or NAS. This condition may develop after the use of any opioid, including methadone, buprenorphine, or the hydrocodone in Xodol. A baby born with NAS will likely suffer withdrawal symptoms during the first weeks or months of life. NAS may also cause low birth weight, seizures, feeding difficulties, breathing problems, and even death.
Babies born to women taking methadone during pregnancy will remain in the hospital for 72 hours, under close observation for signs of NAS.
Self-Detoxification and Pregnancy
Self-detoxification from Xodol may be unsafe for a pregnant woman, especially if she suffers from any underlying condition associated with chronic opioid use or high acetaminophen levels. A pregnant woman should consult with her physician before attempting even tapering.
Inpatient Induction to Methadone Maintenance during Pregnancy
A doctor will usually admit a pregnant woman to a hospital to start methadone treatments. The physician will likely start the patient on 10 mg to 20 mg of methadone then increase dosages by 5 to 10 mg each day based on the patient’s response to treatment. The maximum dosage for a pregnant woman is 60 mg of methadone daily.
The pregnant woman can expect fetal monitoring to measure how well the unborn baby tolerates methadone. The inpatient stay usually lasts about three days before doctors release the woman to outpatient care, where she continues treatment until she delivers her baby.
A pregnant woman may be unable to start methadone treatments in a hospital and choose instead to begin methadone as an outpatient. This woman must come to the methadone clinic twice a day at first, once to take a dose of methadone and again later for evaluation. She can reduce visits to once daily after clinicians establish a safe dose that still covers withdrawal symptoms.
Sometimes a woman will experience breakthrough withdrawal symptoms late in pregnancy and require larger doses of methadone. Outpatient clinicians will manage these dosage increases.
What is the best method of Xodol detoxification? Each person experiences Xodol detoxification in a slightly different way, so there is no single method of detoxification that is right for everyone. The best method depends largely on personal needs, his overall health, the severity of his dependence, and other issues.The individual should assess his likelihood for withdrawal symptoms and complications, and his ability to refuse drugs when offered. He should then choose the least restrictive form of treatment that is still likely to bring him to an opioid-free state safely and effectively