- Generic Name or Active Ingridient: Butorphanol Tartrate
- Increased Heart Rate and Blood Pressure
- Muscle Aches
- Chills Alternating with Hot Flashes
- Severe Sneezing
- Watery Eyes
- Runny Nose
- Dilated Pupils
- Goose Bumps
- Abdominal Cramps
- Inability to Consistently Abstain from Stadol Use
- Other Behavioral Control Problems
- Cravings for Stadol
- An Inability to Recognize Significant Problems with One's Own Behaviors and Interpersonal Relationships
- Inappropriate Emotional Response
- Unusual loss of interest in things that once were important
- Drop in academic performance
- Loss of motivation or energy
- Finds ways to sneak off
- Money issues
- Items missing from the home
- Unexplained Weight Gain or Weight Loss
- A Change in Sleep Patterns
- Deteriorating Physical Appearance - Looks Sickly
- Nagging Cough
- Diminished Hygiene Care
- Body or Clothing May Have an Unusual Odor
- Bloodshot Eyes with Large or Small Pupils
- Slurred Speech
- Inability to Abstain Consistently
- Impairment in Behavioral Control
- Cravings for Drugs or Intense Reward Experiences
- Diminished Capacity to Recognize Significant Personal or Relationship Problems
- Dysfunctional Emotional Response
- Breathing that Stops
- Cold, Clammy Skin
- Extreme Drowsiness
- Pinpoint Pupils
- Shallow Breathing
- Weak Pulse
Stadol contains the powerful opioid pain reliever, butorphanol. Stadol is similar to morphine, but physicians consider this drug more powerful than Demerol. Physicians prescribe Stadol to reduce a patient's pain after surgery or from a significant injury or illness. Surgeons sometimes prescribe Stadol to decrease a patient's awareness and reduce his pain before a procedure.
Butorphanol is an opioid, derived from alkaloids present in the poppy plant. Opioids are widely used in the United States to treat pain; recreational users target opioids because of the way this class of drugs gets them high. Americans consume most of the world's supply of opioids. Americans account for about 5 percent of global population, yet they consume 80 percent of the global opioid supply, according to the Institute of Addiction Medicine.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, about 16 million people in the United States used psychotherapeutic drugs such as Stadol for non-medical reasons at least once in the previous year. To use a drug non-medically means to take the drug to get high or to treat pain not related to the original prescription. There are more cases of drug abuse associated with the nasal form of Stadol than with the injectable formula.
Chronic drug abuse, especially recreational use of prescription pain relievers such as Stadol, can cause opioid dependence and addiction. Anyone can develop a Stadol addiction or dependence if she takes this drug more than a few weeks. Consuming large doses of Stadol, using it longer than prescribed or using Stadol in an unsafe way increases your risk for developing dependence or addiction. Opioid dependence and addiction are serious medical conditions that require the help of a qualified professional.
The Definition of Addiction
Rehabilitation professionals define Stadol addiction as a neurological disease that affects your brain's reward circuitry. This neurological dysfunction results in physiological, psychological and behavioral changes that cause you to continue abusing Stadol. Your Stadol addiction is a chronic disease, which requires long-term treatment.
Stadol addiction prevents you from abstaining consistently, even though you know how destructive opioids are. Addiction disrupts your ability to recognize significant problems with your own behavior or in your relationships with others.
As with other chronic diseases, you may experience many cycles of relapse and remission, especially left untreated or undertreated. Without proper care, Stadol addiction is progressive and may result in disability or premature death.
Addiction versus Dependence
Stadol addiction and opioid dependence are two separate and independent medical conditions.
Your body reacts to the presence of foreign substances, such as food, cigarette smoke or drugs like Stadol by adjusting its own chemistry to maintain a safe chemical balance. If you use Stadol continuously, your body starts to depend on a certain level of Stadol to feel "normal." When your Stadol levels drop, your system struggles to maintain chemical stability. This struggle for chemical balance results in unpleasant, flu-like withdrawal symptoms.
A physician would say you are opioid dependent if you experience withdrawal symptoms after your opioid levels drop quickly. This fast decline of opioid levels can be the result of a missed dose, an insufficient dose, or some medications. Doctors call this process detoxification.
Stadol withdrawal symptoms include:
Anyone who takes Stadol for a long time can become addicted to Stadol, dependent upon it, or both. Stadol addiction and opioid dependence are two separate and independent medical conditions. Opioid dependence causes unpleasant, flu-like withdrawal symptoms a few hours after the last dose of Stadol. Stadol addiction causes behavioral symptoms such as cravings and drug seeking when supplies run low.
Stadol addiction causes neurological changes that result in specific behavioral symptoms. Physicians look for these behavioral indicators when diagnosing a patient as being addicted to Stadol or other substances.
Symptoms of Stadol addiction include:
You could become dependent on a substance but not be addicted to it, or vice versa. For example, you might rely on insulin to control your blood sugar; if you forget to use insulin after a meal, your blood sugar will increase as your body struggles to maintain chemical stability, but you would not feel cravings for insulin or engage in drug-seeking behaviors.
On the other hand, chronic cocaine use may cause addiction but not dependence. A person with a cocaine addiction will not suffer the flu-like symptoms typically associated with opioid withdrawal but he will feel cravings and participate in drug-seeking behavior.
Drug seeking activity
Drug-seeking behavior is the hallmark of addiction. Drug-seeking behavior includes activities such as presenting phony prescriptions at pharmacies or altering prescriptions to get a stronger dose or more Stadol in each bottle. One drug-seeking tactic is to place an emergency call or visit just as the doctor's office is closing for the day and then refusing examination, testing or referral to another facility.
An addict might pretend to misplace prescriptions, tamper with written prescriptions to get more pills in a bottle or go "doctor shopping" to get as many written prescriptions as possible. Some people get Stadol free from friends or relatives. Many individuals buy prescription opioids on the black market.
The DEA refer to these types of activities as "diversion" because of the way abusers divert drugs from their intended use.
Addiction: What Family Members Should Know
Family members should know that Stadol addiction is a disease. Anyone who takes Stadol for a long time may become addicted to it.
No one is born an addict but researchers think heredity plays a large role in whether a person will develop an addiction. While there is no single "addiction gene," a person's biology may make him more vulnerable to addiction. The susceptibility to addiction may be the result of the interaction between many genes.
Family members should know that, while genetics are an important factor, not everyone related to the addicted individual is doomed to suffer from an addiction later in life. Environmental factors, such as work stress or relationship problems, influence the development of addiction.
Stress within the home or workplace increase the risk for drug abuse and addiction for everyone within that environment. Stresses can include constant arguments or violence, financial hardships, unequal workloads or health problems. Some people are hypersensitive to stress; these individuals may use drugs as a coping mechanism.
A hypersensitive parent may pass this trait to an offspring, increasing the child's risk for addictive behaviors later in life. Children learn how to cope with stress by observing their parents; a child may inherit a parent's unhealthy coping mechanisms and do drugs when he is under pressure later in life.
Family members should know that, while they cannot change genetics, they could reduce everyone's risk for addiction by resolving environmental stresses within the home. Counseling gives families the tools they need to communicate more effectively without resorting to arguments or violence. Families can also examine workloads and distribution of household chores and childcare so that no one person feels undue stress.
Unlike many other diseases, Stadol addiction puts your entire family in danger. Your spouse, parents and children, suffer from the collateral damage of this disease.
Stadol addiction steals money from your family. Addiction diverts funds that were supposed to buy groceries, medicine or pay the rent to get more drugs. Additionally, Stadol addiction and other substance abuse interfere with job performance. Left untreated, your long-term Stadol addiction may result in reduced hours or even loss of a job.
Stadol addiction drives up medical costs, especially if it results in overdose or an infectious disease commonly associated with drug use. Without insurance, an infectious illness can be financially devastating.
Stadol addiction also robs the family of time and compassion. This disease may prevent you from giving the guidance, support and financial care your child needs.
Stadol addiction might cause you to associate with people you would have previously avoided. Doctor shopping, filing phony prescriptions or other drug-seeking behaviors stop working after a while; eventually your addiction will force you to get Stadol from drug dealers. In the early stages of your addiction, you do not allow drug dealers near your family but, as your disease worsens, you drop your defenses and invite criminals into your home to get high or to buy and sell drugs. This endangers everyone in your home.
Some individuals resort to crime to pay for Stadol. Long-term criminal activity usually ends in arrest, jail time and conviction. Prison takes countless years away from drug addicts.
Addiction: What Parents Should Know
Parents should know that addiction to prescription drugs like Stadol is not just for adults - many teenagers and young adults are using opioids recreationally or non-medically. In a recent national survey, 3 percent of youths aged 12 to 17 said they had used psychotherapeutic drugs such as Stadol the month before. Most of the survey respondents said they got the drugs free from the family medicine cabinet and from friends or relatives.
Opioids such as Stadol are the most widely prescribed medication in the United States. Many people keep leftover painkillers "just in case," making this drug available and accessible. Additionally, there is less of a social stigma attached to prescription drugs than to illicit ones, making Stadol abuse seem less dangerous than cocaine or heroin.
Teenagers and young adults who use large doses of Stadol or consume this opioid for a long time could become addicted. While every child goes through phases, parents should know the warning signs of addiction and remain alert for changes in behavior that seem inappropriate for the child's age.
Parents should look for warning signs including:
Caring for a Family Member with a Stadol Addiction
As with other neurological diseases, the family is an important part of recovery from Stadol addiction. Family members should encourage the individual to seek treatment and work together to help the person participate in therapy. It is common for a family member to have located the treatment center the addicted individual eventually attends.
The family could hold group meetings to discuss treatment plans and progress; the addicted individual does not have to participate in these meetings. He might become angry when he first learns the family has been talking about his substance abuse, but this usually fades with time.
When to Suggest Treatment
It is never too late to seek treatment; it is possible to stop the progression of Stadol addiction at any time. Early intervention and treatment reduces the significant neurological changes associated with opioid addiction.
Do not let your loved one hit rock bottom before you encourage him to seek treatment. Rock bottom of Stadol addiction might include prison, divorce, unemployment, homelessness, disease, toxic overdose or even death. Hitting rock bottom makes recovery more difficult.
Family members should know how to support a loved one without enabling her Stadol addiction. Recovery often starts when the individual experiences the negative consequences of drug abuse. Caring family members sometimes protect their loved one from the consequences of Stadol addiction, allowing the addictive behaviors to continue. Family counseling can give these family members the skills they need to help a loved one deal with Stadol addiction without worsening the condition.
Signs of Addiction
Stadol addiction causes neurological changes that affect the way you behave, think and feel. When considering a diagnosis of Stadol addiction, doctors look for these specific behavioral, cognitive and emotional changes.
Unfortunately, addiction causes a person to have significant problems in his interpersonal relationships with friends and family, often separating the individual from those who could best recognize the signs of addiction.
Behavioral, Cognitive and Emotional Changes
You may use Stadol more frequently or at higher doses than intended. You might say you want to quit or cut down, even while you are buying more Stadol. You might even try to quit Stadol several times.
You spend a significant amount of time looking for Stadol, getting high or recovering from drug use. This has a significant negative effect on your social life and your job performance. Addiction causes you to neglect your duties at work, school and home.
You continue to abuse Stadol, even though you recognize the problems it causes. It might seem to others that you are unwilling or unable to quit using Stadol.
Stadol affects the reward circuitry of your neurological system in a way that diminishes the passion you used to feel. You grow less interested in spending time with friends or family, indulging in hobbies or pursuing dreams. Eventually, you only do Stadol and nothing else.
Stadol addiction changes the way you think. With continued use, you grow preoccupation with substance use until you can think of nothing else.
Stadol addiction changes your perception of the relative benefits and risks associated with drug use. With continued drug use, you become increasingly blind Stadol's negative effects. Eventually, you blame everyone else instead of realizing your problems are the consequence of your Stadol addiction.
Stadol addiction changes your emotions. Some take Stadol and other opioids to relax, feel euphoria and to relieve pain. Addiction causes you to feel the exact opposite emotions: increased anxiety, sadness and emotional pain. Some individuals have trouble identifying feelings or expressing emotions to other people.
Symptoms of Addiction
Stadol addiction causes a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. The symptoms of Stadol addiction may be obvious or subtle. Symptoms may vary between individuals.
While Stadol addiction is usually associated with behavioral symptoms such as drug-seeking behavior, this disease does cause a variety of physical symptoms.
Physical symptoms of drug addiction include:
Psychological symptoms perpetuate drug abuse and interfere with treatment. Left undiagnosed, untreated or undertreated, psychological symptoms of Stadol addiction may prevent you from seeking or completing treatment.
Psychological symptoms include:
Addiction to Stadol or other drugs causes "disability or premature death, especially when left untreated or treated inadequately," according to the American Society of Addictive Medicine Addiction.
Stadol addiction increases your risk for contracting an infectious disease, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis or hepatitis. Treatment reduces your risk for infectious diseases, adverse reactions and overdose.
According to the CDC, 27,000 people died in the United States from accidental drug overdose. More people die from overdose of prescription painkillers such as Stadol than from cocaine and heroin combined. For every one unintentional overdose, hospitals admit another nine people to treat substance abuse.
There are two components of treatment for Stadol addiction: detoxification and rehabilitation. Detoxification is the medical process of lowering Stadol levels, while rehabilitation addresses the behavioral aspects of Stadol addiction. Detoxification treats physical dependence on Stadol; rehabilitation addresses Stadol addiction.
Rehabilitation includes behavior modification that teaches you how to live without Stadol by changing those particular behaviors associated with Stadol addiction. Rehabilitation reduces neurological dysfunction caused by addiction.
Self-detoxification or "going cold turkey" is the process of going through Stadol withdrawal alone, without medicine to ease symptoms. Cold turkey refers your skin's appearance during the detoxification process: pale, cold and clammy with goose bumps, resembling a plucked bird.
Self-detoxification entails several days of intense withdrawal symptoms and an increased risk for complications. Aspiration, which is vomiting then inhaling the stomach contents, may cause in fluid in your lungs and lung infections. Excessive diarrhea or vomiting may result in dehydration.
Relapse is a major complication of detoxification. Countless cycles of relapse and remission are common, especially with self-detoxification. Overpowering withdrawal symptoms and uncorrected addictive behaviors interfere with recovery efforts.
Withdrawal symptoms begin several hours after the last dose of Stadol and end by themselves after a few days. You can stop withdrawal symptoms by taking medicine that mimics the affects of Stadol, or by taking another dose of Stadol.
Some homemade treatment plans incorporate medicines that reduce some withdrawal symptoms. One such therapy is The Thomas Recipe, which includes valium or some other benzodiazepine to calm anxiety and induce sleep, Imodium for diarrhea along with mineral supplements and hot baths to soothe muscle aches. The Thomas Recipe calls for Tyrosine with B6 to reduce fatigue and malaise.
The Thomas Recipe reduces withdrawal symptoms but does not address complications such as aspiration, dehydration and relapse. Using opioids after even a short amount of detoxification may cause toxic overdose. The detoxification makes the body less tolerant of Stadol, meaning it takes less to affect your system. As a result, it is possible to overdose on a smaller amount of Stadol than you used to take before you tried detox.
Stadol overdose is potentially lethal. If you think you or someone you know is suffering from a Stadol overdose, seek emergency assistance immediately by going to the nearest emergency room or calling an ambulance, whichever is fastest. If you need immediate help, contact your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.
Symptoms of Stadol overdose include:
In the emergency department, doctors administer drugs like naloxone to reduce Stadol to non-toxic levels. The effects of Stadol often outlast those of naloxone, so your doctors will monitor your opioid levels closely and administer more naloxone if your opioid levels begin to rise again.
Nurses monitor your vital signs, observe you for complications and establish an airway to help you breathe. Nurses may pump your stomach or administer charcoal to absorb excess Stadol. If necessary, nurses and doctors perform CPR or other procedures to save your life.
If you have not taken an overdose and are in otherwise good condition, you might benefit from DRT, or Drug Replacement Therapy. DRT replaces Stadol with methadone, Suboxone or buprenorphine. DRT drugs act similarly to opioids, so you will not experience withdrawal symptoms, but DRT drugs will not get you high. DRT allows you to participate in behavioral modification before going through the detoxification process. After you develop healthier life skills without Stadol, you will wean yourself from the replacement drug or goes through the detoxification process.
Many people have trouble quitting the replacement drug. Harvard Medical School says that about one-quarter of methadone DRT patients eventually quit using drugs altogether while another 25 percent continues to take the replacement drug. About half of all DRT participants go on and off methadone for the rest of their lives.
Standard detoxification requires a stay in an inpatient facility. During standard detoxification procedures, doctors give you medications to reduce Stadol levels plus more drugs to ease withdrawal symptoms. While standard inpatient MAT makes you feel a little better, you may still struggle with those psychological symptoms of Stadol addiction that can cause relapse after detoxification.
Rapid detox is the most humane form of detoxification available today. Rapid detox improves your detoxification experience and puts you in a better position to participate in behavioral modification.
During rapid detox, board certified anesthesiologists administer the standard detoxification and anti-withdrawal drugs alongside sedatives and anesthesia, so you doze in a restful "twilight sleep." When you wake up, you will not remember the grueling detoxification process. Instead of a few days, you are ready for meaningful behavior modification in a few hours.
Detoxification is only the first stage of treatment for Stadol addiction and by itself does little to change long-term drug use or addictive behavior. Rehabilitation and behavior modification is also essential in the treatment of Stadol addiction.
Medically assisted detoxification is only the first stage of addiction treatment and by itself does little to change long-term Stadol addiction. Stadol addiction is a complex but treatable disease that affects brain function and behavior. Without prompt and effective behavioral modification, you are likely to return to those behaviors associated with Stadol addiction.
No single treatment is right for everyone. There is a variety of treatment options, from outpatient counseling centers to long-term, residential programs. Rehabilitation typically includes individual, family and group counseling and other behavioral therapies.
No matter what form of treatment you choose, the treatment must be readily available so that you can easily participate long enough for treatment to be effective. It is vital that you remain in treatment long enough to restore neurological function disrupted by Stadol addiction. Your counselor will continually assess and modify your treatment plan to ensure it fits your changing needs. Your counselor will also monitor for drug use, as relapses are common.
Your counselor may assess you for HIV/ AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases associated with chronic substance abuse. Your treatment plan may include targeted risk-reduction counseling to help you identify and change behaviors that increase your risk of contracting or spreading infectious diseases.
Effective treatment must attend to your multiple needs. Stadol addiction is a complex disease requiring an equally complex treatment plan. Stadol addiction frequently accompanies other mental disorders, such as depression.