- Generic Name or Active Ingridient: Oxycodone And Acetaminophen
Primalev is a brand name preparation containing oxycodone and acetaminophen. Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid pain reliever. Pharmaceutical companies make oxycodone from derivatives of the opium poppy plant. Acetaminophen is a non-opioid drug found in many prescription and non-prescription medications.
Oxycodone, like other opioids, creates a pleasant euphoria that makes it a target for recreational drug abusers. Long-term use may cause the consumer to become drug-dependence. Acetaminophen does not get the consumer high and is therefore not usually a target for abuse. Chronic acetaminophen use does not cause dependence, but using acetaminophen regularly for a long time can cause dangerous health hazards, especially overdose and acute liver failure.
Currently, more than three percent of American adults are receiving long-term opioid therapy for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. Oxycodone is an important weapon in the fight against pain - American pharmacists dispensed 58.2 million prescriptions for Primalev and other drugs containing oxycodone in 2010.
While most of these individuals used Primalev as directed, some used this drug for non-medical reasons. To use a drug non-medically means to take it to get high or to treat a condition other than the one the prescribing physician had intended to treat. About 5 million Americans use painkillers for non-medical reasons every year.
Doctors prescribe Primalev to relieve a patient’s moderate to moderately severe pain. The oxycodone in Primalev interacts with the nervous system to change the way the brain interprets pain signals. Primalev causes other neurological effects, with the most notable being sedation, relaxation, and euphoria. With continued use, some of these neurological events become more permanent, causing significant changes in the way a person thinks, behaves, and feels. These changes can negatively affect the individual’s ability to work, take care of family, and relate to others, leading to job loss and financial hardship, divorce or separation, and other social hardships.
Anyone who uses Primalev for a long time can grow opioid-dependent, whether he uses this drug as prescribed or for non-medical purposes. The body adapts to the presence of some toxic substances, including the oxycodone in Primalev. In time, the body starts to depend on a certain level of opioids to feel normal - the body becomes opioid-dependent.
According to results from a 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, about 1.9 million Americans are dependent on Primalev and other opioids. This number of opioid-dependent people has grown slightly since 2004, when there were 1.4 million opioid-dependent people in the United States.
Primalev Detox Symptoms
When opioid levels fall drastically, the opioid-dependent body struggles to recover from the toxic effects of oxycodone. Doctors refer to this as Primalev detoxification. The opioid-dependent person experiences detoxification through uncomfortable, flu-like withdrawal symptoms.
These symptoms usually appear in two waves, with the first set of symptoms beginning a few hours after the last dose of Primalev. Initially, the patient may experience restlessness, watery eyes and a runny nose, chills, body aches, and large pupils. He may yawn or perspire excessively.
Later, the patient may become irritable, anxious, weak, and have trouble sleeping. He might suffer a backache or joint pain, along with stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. His blood pressure may rise and his pulse might increase; the patient may breathe rapidly.
The individual may stop these withdrawal symptoms at any time by taking more Primlev but relapse reverses the detoxification process and returns the person to an opioid-dependent state. Someone can take non-opioid drugs to reduce the individual withdrawal symptoms without disrupting the detoxification process.
Withdrawal symptoms persist for five or more days and, left uninterrupted, disappear altogether as the patient completes the detoxification process. These withdrawal symptoms will not return unless the patient relapses to an opioid-dependent state.
Primalev Detoxification and Rehabilitation
Detoxification also refers to the medical procedure of lowering opioid levels and addressing withdrawal symptoms to make it easier and safer for the patient to complete the detoxification process. Detoxification is only one stage of treatment and, by itself, does little to change the behaviors associated with drug abuse. Most opioid-dependent people respond favorably to rehabilitation to learn how to live without drugs. Rehabilitation often includes counseling and behavior modification to help patients identify situations that may lead to drug abuse and how to refuse Primalev when offered.
Primalev detoxification helps the patient achieve an opioid-free state and cleanses the body of the toxic effects of Primalev; this puts the patient in optimal physical condition and clear state of mind so he can get the most out of rehabilitation. Primalev detoxification reduces the severity and frequency of relapses, and promotes abstinence. Detoxification helps the patient remain in rehabilitation long enough to reverse the neurological effects of Primalev abuse and restore the individual to as much of his former life as possible.
Types of Detox
There are several approaches to Primalev detoxification, ranging from self-care at home to the inpatient administration of strong anesthetics and anti-withdrawal drugs. Of those needing detoxification, only about 10 percent got it at a specialty facility like a hospital, outpatient clinic, or mental health facility. Everyone else tried detoxifying at home, seeking help from a family physician, by going to an emergency room, or quitting while in jail or prison.
These are all viable approaches to Primalev detoxification. Dependence manifests itself differently for each person, so no single treatment plan will work for everyone.
After a patient takes Primalev for several weeks after an injury, illness, or invasive procedure, the prescribing physician usually suggests the patient taper Primalev use by taking smaller doses each day rather than quitting abruptly. This tapering method of self-detoxification also works for some people who take Primalev for non-medical reasons.
Self-detoxification is appropriate for anyone who has been opioid-dependent for only a short time, suffers only moderate withdrawal symptoms, and who requires little supervision during Primalev detoxification.
Lingering withdrawal symptoms prevent some people from tapering Primalev use. These individuals might consider quitting cold turkey by discontinuing Primalev abruptly. Anyone who quits cold turkey can expect unbridled and prolonged withdrawal symptoms.
Some natural remedies are moderately helpful in easing the self-detoxification procedure. Acupuncture, meditation, yoga and massage, for example, help relax the individual to reduce stress and anxiety. Consuming ginger or peppermint soothes nausea, while chamomile or cayenne controls diarrhea.
Some people create homemade treatment plans that include prescription and non-prescription drugs to reduce symptoms. One well-known remedy is The Thomas Plan, which suggests a benzodiazepine like Xanax or Librium to calm nerves and help with sleep. It also calls for vitamin B6 for muscle aches and restlessness, Imodium for diarrhea, and L-Tyrosine for energy.
Medical detoxification, sometimes called medication-assisted detoxification, utilizes opioid and non-opioid drugs to control the onset of detoxification and the severity of withdrawal symptoms. This approach is appropriate for anyone whose withdrawal symptoms prevent tapering. Medical detoxification can take place through an outpatient clinic or in an inpatient setting.
Outpatient detoxification is for patients who have been dependent on Primalev for more than one year and who require little supervision during the procedure. Outpatient physicians prescribe opioid drugs, such as methadone or buprenorphine, that act as replacements for Primalev to reduce withdrawal symptoms during the tapering process. The patient starts on a high dose of the replacement drug in the early induction phase - just enough to stop withdrawal symptoms - then takes smaller doses each day.
In 1939, a previously unknown German chemist synthesized methadone for use as a pain reliever. Doctors around the world still prescribe methadone as an analgesic, but most Americans think of methadone as a treatment for heroin addiction. In 1964, doctors used methadone to suppress a heroin epidemic marching across New York City. The FDA approved methadone for use in the treatment of opioid dependence in 1972. Today, about 100,000 Americans use a methadone maintenance program to delay withdrawal symptoms while they participate in rehabilitation.
When used as an aid to tapering, doctors will start the patient on 10 to 15 mg of methadone and increase dosages by 10 mg each day until the patient no longer experiences withdrawal symptoms. The patient remains on this dosage for a few days then begins the tapering process by reducing dosages 10 mg each day until he completes the detoxification process.
Patients may prefer to use buprenorphine during tapering, which may take as little as one week. Buprenorphine is available as the brand name, Subutex.
The consumer places a buprenorphine tablet under her tongue, where it dissolves before entering the blood stream.
Some people abuse buprenorphine intravenously to get high by dissolving buprenorphine tablets before injecting the solution into a vein. Drug makers deter this abuse by adding naloxone to the brand name buprenorphine preparation, Suboxone. When taken as directed under the tongue, Suboxone has little to no effect. When used intravenously, however, naloxone interferes with the way buprenorphine works to prevent the consumer from getting high. Additionally, naloxone causes withdrawal symptoms in opioid-dependent people.
Most patients benefit from inpatient Primalev detoxification, which usually includes prescreening, potent medications, and close patient supervision. Detoxification specialists may administer naltrexone to lower oxycodone levels. Once withdrawal symptoms begin, doctors will order promethazine or hydroxyzine to soothe nausea, Loperamide to slow diarrhea, and clonidine for a variety of symptoms including restlessness, sweating, and watery eyes.
Inpatient care specialists will take extra care to monitor the patient for signs of acute liver failure during Primalev detoxification.
Someone who has tried self-detoxification or outpatient detoxification can benefit from inpatient care, as can anyone who suffers severe withdrawal symptoms or is at high risk for complications. Primalev detoxification in a hospital or other inpatient facility is appropriate for those who have co-existing conditions that may interfere with the detoxification process, especially those with coinciding substance abuse issues.
Inpatient Primalev detoxification is necessary for anyone recovering from an overdose or who cannot safely participate in outpatient care because of a serious physical condition, such as acute liver failure associated with chronic acetaminophen use. Those with severe mental disorders, such as acute psychosis or depression with suicidal thoughts, should participate in inpatient care. Anyone exhibiting behaviors that suggest he may be a danger to his own well-being or to the safety to others should detoxify from Primalev in an inpatient setting.
Rapid Opiate Detox
All opioid-dependent people can benefit from rapid detox. Specially trained anesthesiologists sedate and anesthetize the patient before giving him the standard detoxification and anti-withdrawal drugs. The rapid detox patient dozes in a comfortable “twilight sleep” during Primalev detoxification, unaware of the difficult withdrawal symptoms that may have prevented him from completing the detoxification process in the past. Rapid detox brings patients to an opioid-free state in one to two hours.
Our detox center: Who we are and what we do
We are a dedicated group of board-certified anesthesiologists and medical professionals who specialize in detoxification procedures. Since opening the doors of our fully accredited hospital more than a decade ago, we have helped thousands of people reach an opioid-free state.
We prescreen patients in our state-of-the-art facility, searching for any underlying medical conditions that may interfere with Primalev detoxification. We then develop a personalized treatment plan that may include rapid detox. After completing the detoxification process, patients may continue recovery in our qualified aftercare facility.
Opioid dependence affects each person differently, so no single approach to treatment is right for everyone. For example, someone with only minor withdrawal symptoms can taper Primalev easily at home while extreme and prolonged withdrawal symptoms might prevent another individual from quitting Primalev without the help of trained professionals. When deciding between approaches to Primalev detoxification, it is often helpful to compare the various treatment forms to highlight the benefits and risks associated with each type of therapy.
Without the expense of anti-withdrawal drugs, prescreening and professional consultation, self-detoxification is the least expensive. Self-detoxification is also more private than any other approach because it does not require a hospital stay or appearance at an outpatient clinic.
As compared to other forms of treatment, however, self-detoxification poses the greatest risk for severe withdrawal symptoms and complications because it does not include anti-withdrawal drugs, prescreening, and professional consultation. This is especially significant during Primalev detoxification, when acute liver failure associated with acetaminophen potentially causing serious complications.
Outpatient detoxification is less private and more costly than self-detoxification but it provides medications to control withdrawal symptoms along with professional guidance to improve the patient’s chances for completing the detoxification process.
Outpatient maintenance is better than self-detoxification in that it offers replacement drugs and counseling. Outpatient care reduces the risk for complications. Patients remain in treatment for months or years.
Inpatient care is better because it offers complete detoxification before the individual engages in rehabilitation. Inpatient care offers more monitoring. Completion rates are highest for detoxification services - about 66 percent - and lowest for outpatient treatment at about 42 percent. Only about 14 percent of those participating in outpatient medication-assisted therapy with methadone or buprenorphine complete treatment.
The average length of stay for detoxification is 4 days, compared with 197 days for medication-assisted therapy.
Rapid detox is the most humane and efficient approach, offering fast and complete detoxification. Rapid detox brings the patient to a drug-free state in hours rather than days or months. Rapid detox frees the patient from the uncomfortable and demoralizing withdrawal symptoms that interfere with recovery.
Detox Possible Complications
Primalev detoxification is not usually life-threatening, but severe withdrawal symptoms, medical problems, alcoholism or other substance abuse problems, and pregnancy may cause dangerous complications during Primalev detoxification.
Relapse is the prime complication associated with all approaches to Primalev detoxification. Overpowering withdrawal symptoms force some to relapse during detoxification, while others return to Primalev abuse after completing detoxification. As with other chronic diseases, relapses may occur. Relapse does not mean treatment has failed, but it does indicate the patient needs to participate in a more aggressive approach to detoxification.
Relapse increases the risk for a toxic or even fatal overdose. The detoxification process makes the body more sensitive to the effects of oxycodone. This increased sensitivity means someone could potentially overdose on a smaller amount of Primalev than he used to take before experiencing even minor withdrawal symptoms for a short time.
In 2008, 14,800 Americans died after overdose from Primalev or another prescription opioid. That year, more people died from prescription opioid overdoses than from overdoses of cocaine and heroin combined.
Primalev overdose puts the patient at special risk because it contains acetaminophen. Acetaminophen overdose is one of the most common poisonings worldwide and is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Most of these cases involved accidental overdose rather than an intentional suicide attempt.
Acetaminophen is a common ingredient in many prescription and non-prescription products - in 2005, Americans purchased more than 28 billion doses of products containing acetaminophen. This wide-scale presence makes the consumer particularly vulnerable to accidental overdose as he unknowingly takes multiple products containing acetaminophen, especially to relieve discomfort caused by withdrawal symptoms.
Self Detox Possible Complications
Someone attempting self-detoxification is more likely to suffer severe and prolonged withdrawal symptoms, particularly if he quits cold turkey. Extended and severe vomiting or diarrhea may cause dehydration and imbalances in electrolytes such as potassium and sodium.
Withdrawal symptoms can worsen underlying illnesses; without prescreening to detect these conditions, those attempting self-detoxification may suffer serious or life-threatening complications. For example, Primalev detoxification may increase blood pressure, pulse, and perspiration to aggravate a heart condition. The detoxification process can make the patient anxious, a serious issue for individuals already suffering from anxiety disorders. Discontinuing Primalev may cause pain to return in patients who take this medication to reduce discomfort from a chronic illness, such as cancer or arthritis.
Primalev detoxification may cause a fever, the return of pain, or other uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms that could prompt the individual to take acetaminophen, increasing his risk for acute liver failure or acetaminophen overdose.
Outpatient Care Possible Complications
Outpatient care provides medication-assisted treatment along with prescreening and professional guidance to reduce the risk for complications associated with acute withdrawal symptoms, underlying conditions and a poor treatment plan, but outpatient detoxification may present a different set of complications to the Primalev detoxification process. For example, patients may become dependent on methadone or buprenorphine and remain on these replacement drugs for months or years, extending the opioid-dependent state for an unnecessarily long time.
Methadone is not entirely safe and poses an ever-increasing risk for death. While methadone sales account for only about 2 percent of the prescription painkiller market, methadone is involved with about a third of all opioid pain reliever deaths. The number of methadone-associated deaths is rising: in 2009, there were 5.5 times as many deaths associated with methadone as there were in 1999.
While buprenorphine is safer than methadone, someone can still abuse buprenorphine and it is still possible to die from buprenorphine abuse. The risk for death rises dramatically when the consumer combines buprenorphine with benzodiazepines, like the Xanax or Librium recommended in The Thomas Recipe.
Inpatient Detox Possible Complications
Inpatient Primalev detoxification provides the greatest protection from complications because hospitals offer potent anti-withdrawal drugs, advanced diagnostic and monitoring equipment, and close patient supervision. Even with this high level of protection, a patient may experience complications during inpatient Primalev detoxification, especially those patients enduring withdrawal from multiple substances, especially alcohol, benzodiazepines, sedatives and anti-anxiety drugs.
Rapid Detox Possible Complications
Rarely, a patient may suffer an allergic reaction or be hypersensitive to the drugs used in rapid detox. A patient, for example, may experience respiratory problems, increased blood pressure, or rapid heart rate after receiving strong sedatives. Someone may suffer bruising, swelling, or infection at the injection site.
Medical researchers have been studying the effects of detoxification for decades, pouring over statistics and facts about opioid dependence and the physiology of returning to an opioid-free state. Real doctors and patients have gathered millions of hours of clinical experience regarding detoxification, withdrawal, relapse, and other aspects of opioid dependence. Despite this mountain of facts, myths about detoxification prevent an untold number of people from getting the help they need to reach a Primalev-free state.
Self Detox Myths
Myth: Self-detoxification is just a matter of self-control - anyone can do it.
Fact: Self-discipline helps someone refuse Primalev when offered, but the detoxification process is an intense physiological event affecting many body systems, including the nervous system and digestive tract. The intensity of withdrawal symptoms has nothing to do with the amount of determination a patient may have.
Myth: Home remedies like The Thomas Recipe are safe and effective because they include prescription and over-the-counter drugs to reduce withdrawal symptoms.
Fact: Only a doctor has the medical education and legal power to prescribe medications. Combining medications can cause dangerous drug interactions. Furthermore, taking a prescription or non-prescription drug that contains acetaminophen to reduce withdrawal symptoms during Primalev detoxification may cause serious liver damage.
Outpatient Detox Myths
Myth: It is cheaper throw drug abusers in jail than to provide outpatient care.
Fact: A year of incarceration costs about $24,000 per prisoner, while that same year of methadone would cost only $4,700 per patient.
Myth: Methadone causes bone rot.
Fact: Inadequate methadone can cause withdrawal symptoms, especially achy bones. Patients experiencing bone pain should request a dosage increase from the attending physician.
Inpatient Detox Myths
Myth: Inpatient Primalev detoxification is a waste of a hospital bed because opioid-dependent people always relapse, even after treatment.
Fact: Drug dependence is a chronic condition. Opioid-dependent people suffer relapse rates similar to other chronic illnesses, such as high blood pressure, diabetes or asthma - anywhere from 40 to 60 percent.
Myth: Inpatient treatment is like throwing community money down a hole.
Fact: For every dollar spent on drug treatment, experts suggest a savings of $4 to $7 in reduced drug-related crime rates and criminal justice costs. Factor in savings to the local healthcare system and the yields rise to $12 gained for every dollar spent.
Rapid Detox Myths
Myth: The pain and humiliation of withdrawal symptoms are an important aspect of Primalev detoxification - they serve as a punishing reminder about drug abuse.
Fact: Human suffering is never an appropriate part of any treatment plan. In fact, the uncomfortable and demoralizing aspects of Primalev detoxification prevent many people from completing the process.
Myth: It takes weeks or months to reach an opioid-free state.
Fact: A reputable rapid detox expert can bring someone to an opioid-free state in one to two hours.
Detox and Pregnancy
Opioid dependence places a woman at special risk for developing serious illnesses, such as blood infections, anemia, heart problems, mood disorders, hepatitis, pneumonia and infectious diseases including tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases. These conditions increase the risk for complications during pregnancy, labor, and delivery that could place the mother and fetus in danger, including hemorrhage and bleeding, separation or inflammation of the membrane surrounding the fetus, slow fetal growth, premature labor and delivery, spontaneous abortion, and fetal death.
Methadone reduces these complications. Methadone maintenance is currently the only approved treatment plan for opioid dependence in pregnant women, although a 2012 U.S. Government study published in the New England Journal of Medicine says that buprenorphine seems to be “an acceptable treatment for opioid dependence in pregnant women.”
A baby born to a woman who uses Primalev, methadone, buprenorphine, or any other opioid may be born with neonatal abstinence syndrome, or NAS. This baby will likely suffer withdrawal symptoms during the first weeks or months of life. A baby born with NAS is also at risk for low birth weight, seizures, respiratory conditions, eating problems, or death. A baby born to a woman taking methadone during pregnancy usually remains under close observation in the hospital for at least 72 hours after delivery.
Self Detox and Pregnancy
The complications associated with self-detoxification makes this approach potentially unsafe for pregnant women. A pregnant woman should never attempt self-detoxification without first consulting a doctor.
Outpatient and Pregnancy
A pregnant woman may start methadone maintenance as an outpatient. She will come to the clinic twice daily - once to receive a morning dose and again for evaluation. The attending physician will base the next morning’s dose on her response to treatment.
The physician will usually start a pregnant woman on 10 mg to 20 mg of methadone per day, and increase dosages by 5 to 10 mg each day until establishing a safe dose that controls withdrawal symptoms. Some pregnant women require stronger doses towards the end of pregnancy. The maximum daily dose for a pregnant woman is 60 mg of methadone.
Inpatient and Pregnancy
Doctors typically suggest the pregnant woman begin methadone treatments in a hospital or other inpatient facility where physicians and nurses can monitor the health of both the mother and the unborn baby. This inpatient stay typically lasts three days.
What is the best method to detox from this drug?
Every person experiences Primalev detoxification in a slightly different way, so each person must choose the form of treatment most likely to help him achieve an opioid-free state. The individual should assess the severity of his withdrawal symptoms, risk for complications, ability to refrain from drug abuse, and need for support during the detoxification process and choose a form of treatment that reflects those needs. The patient should opt for the least restrictive treatment approach that still delivers safe and effective care.
- Primalev Detox