- Generic Name or Active Ingridient: Oxycodone And Acetaminophen
Perloxx contains oxycodone and acetaminophen. Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid pain reliever that drug manufacturers make from extracts of the opium poppy plant.
Acetaminophen is a non-opioid analgesic. While acetaminophen is not associated with dependence, taking acetaminophen for a long time can cause serious physical harm.
The oxycodone in Perloxx works with the nervous system to change the way the brain interprets pain signals. Perloxx cause other neurological changes, most notably sedation, relaxation, and a pleasant feeling of euphoria. The neurological effects of opioids can alter the way the individual thinks, feels, and behaves. Over time, these alterations become more permanent and can adversely affect his ability to work, take care of family, and interact with others, leading to profound personal, social, and financial problems.
Doctors prescribe Perloxx to relieve a patient’s moderate to severe pain. Oxycodone is a commonly prescribed pain reliever. In 2010, U.S. pharmacists dispensed 58.2 million prescriptions for drugs containing oxycodone, including Perloxx. Currently, more than three percent of American adults are receiving long-term opioid therapy for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain.
Most patients take Perloxx as directed and discontinue this drug at the appropriate time. Some people, however, use Perloxx for non-medical reasons either to get high or to relieve pain unrelated to the condition the doctor intended to treat when she wrote the prescription. About 5 million Americans use painkillers for non-medical use every year.
Anyone who uses Perloxx regularly for therapeutic or non-medical use is at risk for becoming dependent on opioids. The body acclimates to the presence of opioids and begins to rely on a certain level of oxycodone to feel normal - he becomes opioid-dependent.
When opioid levels fall dramatically, the body struggles to regain stability and cleanse itself from the toxic effects of Perloxx. Doctors refer to this as detoxification. The opioid-dependent person experiences Perloxx detoxification through unpleasant and demoralizing withdrawal symptoms that begin a few hours after the last dose.
These unpleasant withdrawal symptoms fade after five or more days as the body completes Perloxx detoxification. Withdrawal symptoms do not return unless the person starts using opioids again and relapses to an opioid-free state.
Detoxification can also refer to the medical process of lowering opioid levels and addressing withdrawal symptoms. Perloxx detoxification can occur at home, through an outpatient care clinic, a hospital, or a special detoxification facility.
Detoxification is only one phase of the recovery process and, by itself, does little to change the behaviors associated with drug abuse. Most opioid-dependent people benefit from some form of rehabilitation, such as counseling or behavior modification, to learn how to lead drug-free lives. These programs teach the patient how to identify situations that can lead to drug abuse and how to refuse Perloxx when offered.
The detoxification process facilitates entry into rehabilitation by ending withdrawal symptoms that could cause relapse. Perloxx detoxification helps patients remain in rehabilitation long enough to reverse some of the neurological damage caused by chronic opioid use, returning the patient to as much of his former life as possible. The detoxification process helps the patient think clearly, identify his emotions, and behave in a responsible manner, improving his ability to work, social well-being and psychological health. Detoxification promotes abstinence and lessens the frequency and severity of drug use episodes when they do occur.
Types of Detox
According to results from a 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, about 1.9 million Americans are dependent on Perloxx and other prescription analgesics. The number of opioid-dependent people has grown slightly in the United States since 2004, when there were 1.4 million opioid-dependent people in the United States. Each of these individuals must undergo some form of detoxification to reach an opioid-free state.
About 10 percent of people who need help for a substance abuse disorder receive it through a specialty facility, such as an inpatient hospital, outpatient clinic, or mental health institution. Everyone else tried self-detoxification, working with a private physician, going to an emergency room, or quitting while incarcerated in jail or prison. Each is a viable option with its own advantages and disadvantages.
When a physician decides to discontinue Perloxx, he suggests the patient wean herself by taking successively smaller doses each day - just enough to stop withdrawal symptoms - until she reaches an opioid-free state.
While tapering works well for most patients who have been opioid-dependent for only a short time, lingering withdrawal symptoms prevent some people from completing Perloxx detoxification. These individuals might try quitting cold turkey by discontinuing Perloxx abruptly. Someone who quits cold turkey feels the full brunt of withdrawal symptoms but will eventually achieve an opioid-free state.
Some people hope to reduce the severity of withdrawal symptoms with natural remedies, such as eating special diets or trying acupuncture, meditation, yoga, or massage to soothe the body.
Others take a more scientific approach and create a homemade treatment plan with prescription and over-the-counter drugs to reduce withdrawal symptoms. One well-published remedy is The Thomas Recipe, which calls for a benzodiazepine like Valium, Librium or Xanax to calm the patient and help him sleep along with vitamin B6 for muscle aches and Imodium for diarrhea. As long as the patient does not take opioids, even these homespun remedies can reduce withdrawal symptoms to help the individual reach an opioid-free state.
Perloxx detoxification is a natural process that occurs without any prompting or intervention. Medication-assisted detoxification, or medical detox, that includes anti-withdrawal medications and professional detoxification procedures vastly improves the patient’s chances of completing the detoxification process. Medical detox may take place through outpatient or inpatient facilities.
Sometimes outpatient clinics will administer methadone or buprenorphine as a “step down” drug to ease withdrawal symptoms in patients attempting detoxification at home. Professionals call this medication-assisted treatment or medically supervised withdrawal. These patients start on high doses of the replacement drug during the induction phase then slowly reduce daily dosage during the subsequent days of the tapering phase.
A previously unknown German chemist first synthesized methadone in 1939 while searching for a safe and effective opioid analgesic. Doctors worldwide still prescribe methadone as a pain reliever today.
Doctors began using methadone to treat heroin addiction in the early 1960s and, in 1964, even quelled a heroin epidemic ravaging New York City. In 1972, the FDA approved methadone as an opioid replacement, where the patient takes weak doses of methadone to delay the onset of withdrawal symptoms while he engages in rehabilitation. Today, about 100,000 Americans use a methadone maintenance program. These individuals may remain on methadone for months or even years.
Some patients use methadone to reduce the onset of withdrawal symptoms during the tapering process. A doctor will typically start the opioid-dependent patient on 10 to 15 mg of methadone, increasing dosages by 10 mg each day until the physician finds a dose that safely controls withdrawal symptoms. The patient will remain on this dosage for a few days before beginning the tapering process, reducing the dosages by 10 mg a day until he is longer dependent on Perloxx.
Some patients use buprenorphine, sometimes called Subutex, to prevent the onset of withdrawal symptoms during tapering. While tapering schedules may differ from person to person, some patients can complete Perloxx detoxification in as little as one week using buprenorphine. The patient places the buprenorphine tablet under her tongue, where it dissolves before entering the bloodstream.
Some recreational users abuse buprenorphine intravenously by dissolving the tablet in liquid before injecting it into a vein. Pharmaceutical companies deter this improper administration by adding naloxone, sometimes called Narcan, to the brand name buprenorphine product Suboxone. When taken under the tongue, naloxone has little to no effect but neutralizes the effects of buprenorphine when taken intravenously. Naloxone not only prevents the consumer from getting high, it also causes withdrawal symptoms in opioid-dependent consumers.
Most patients respond favorably to inpatient detoxification. Inpatient detoxification usually includes powerful detoxification and anti-withdrawal medications to reduce the severity of withdrawal symptoms. Some physicians administer naltrexone to lower Perloxx levels and initiate the detoxification process. The doctor may give the patient hydroxyzine or promethazine to relieve nausea, Loperamide for diarrhea, and Clonidine for a variety of symptoms such as watery eyes, sweating and restlessness.
Patients usually undergo prescreening for the presence of any underlying conditions that may complicate treatment. Nurses monitor patients closely and respond immediately to any complications that may arise.
Inpatient Perloxx detoxification is appropriate for anyone who cannot tolerate withdrawal symptoms well enough to complete the detoxification process. It is also for those who are at increased risk for serious withdrawal symptoms or complications, and for any individual with a proven history of poor participation in or not benefiting from other less restrictive forms of treatment.
Inpatient Perloxx detoxification is recommended for anyone with co-existing illnesses or substance abuse issues that could complicate the detoxification process.
Anyone recovering from an overdose or other serious medical condition should engage in inpatient Perloxx detoxification. Inpatient Perloxx detoxification is necessary for those with severe psychiatric problems that impair participation in treatment, especially for patients suffering from acute psychosis or depression with suicidal thoughts.
Rapid Opiate Detox
Rapid opiate detox is the most effective and humane approach to Perloxx detoxification available today. Rapid detox rids the body of Perloxx while the patient dozes in a comfortable “twilight sleep,” unaware of any uncomfortable or demeaning withdrawal symptoms that prevented him from reaching an opioid-free state in the past.
Our detox center: Who we are and what we do
Our fully accredited hospital is staffed with board-certified anesthesiologists and other highly educated professionals who receive extra training in rapid detox procedures. Since opening the doors of our state-of-the-art facility more than a decade ago, we have helped thousands of patients complete the detoxification process.
We believe in treating our patients as people with real emotions and needs, not as criminals or drug addicts. We know there is a real human story behind every instance of opioid dependence, and we respect our patient’s dignity.
We prescreen our patients in an accredited facility, searching for any pre-existing conditions that might undermine his success. We then create an individualized treatment plan, often including rapid detox. After helping the patient complete Perloxx detoxification, we invite him to continue his recovery in our qualified aftercare facility.
Every approach to Perloxx detoxification has its benefits and drawbacks. Choosing between the various forms of Perloxx detoxification can be confusing, as the differences between each approach can be subtle. Comparing Perloxx detoxification methods can make this decision easier.
Without the expense of medications and doctors, self-detoxification is the least costly form of Perloxx detoxification and it does bring the patient to an opioid-free state in a matter of days. However, without anti-withdrawal drugs and professional care, self-detoxification is associated with the highest risk severe withdrawal symptoms and complications.
Outpatient medication-assisted detoxification is associated with fewer withdrawal symptoms and complications than quitting cold turkey. It may take someone longer to complete outpatient treatment than to quit cold turkey, however, and the patient may accidently become dependent on methadone or buprenorphine and remain in treatment for months or years before achieving an opioid-free state.
Inpatient care provides the most protection against withdrawal symptoms and complications because it includes the greatest amount of prescreening, proven detoxification and anti-withdrawal drugs, professional treatment plans, and close patient supervision. Patients achieve an opioid-free state quickly, with the average inpatient stay lasting 4 days, compared with 197 days for medication-assisted therapy.
Rapid detox is the most humane and efficient approach to Perloxx detoxification in that it brings patients to an opioid-free state in one to two hours, sparing him the uncomfortable and protracted withdrawal symptoms associated with other treatment plans.
Detox Possible Complications
Perloxx detoxification is not normally a life-threatening process but the patient may develop dangerous complications caused by severe withdrawal symptoms, underlying medical conditions, or co-existing substance abuse problems.
Relapse is the primary complication associated with Perloxx detoxification. The patient may take more Perloxx to stop withdrawal symptoms during detoxification, or he may relapse sometime after completing the detoxification process. Relapse may bring the patient back to an opioid-dependent state, especially if he is still in the detoxification process or has recently completed detox.
Relapse increases the risk for a fatal overdose. The detoxification process lowers the body’s tolerance of oxycodone, making him more sensitive to the effects of opioids. This means someone could potentially overdose on a smaller amount of Perloxx than he used to take before suffering minor withdrawal symptoms.
Prescription opioid overdose now kill more Americans than overdose of cocaine and heroin combined. In 2008, prescription opioid overdoses claimed the lives of 14,800 Americans in 2008, and this number is rising to reflect the ever-increasing number of prescription opioids available on the market.
The acetaminophen in Perloxx puts an overdose patient at special risk for liver damage or death. Acetaminophen overdose is one of the most common poisonings worldwide and is responsible for 500 deaths per year in the United States. About half of all people who died from acetaminophen overdose took a toxic dose by accident, rather than an intentional suicide attempt.
As his condition progresses, the opioid-dependent person usually develops tolerance to Perloxx and requires ever-stronger doses to achieve the same analgesic or euphoric effects. This chronic overdose of Perloxx may lead to toxic doses of acetaminophen of more than 4,000 mg of acetaminophen in a single day.
Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States. This analgesic produces small amounts of the metabolite, NAPQI. The liver is responsible for clearing NAPQI from the body. If the liver cannot eliminate NAPQI quickly, this metabolite rises to dangerous levels and damage liver cells.
Acetaminophen overdose causes NAPQI levels to rise quickly, making it difficult for the liver to lower metabolites to non-toxic levels in time to avoid liver damage. Alcohol interferes with the uptake of NAPQI, causing levels to remain high or even increase. The extent of liver damage depends on NAPQI levels and the ability of the liver to lower these levels.
The antidote to NAPQI poisoning is acetylcysteine.
Self Detox Possible Complications
Even with careful tapering, someone can suffer complications during self-detoxification especially in the presence of severe withdrawal symptoms, underlying conditions, and other substance abuse problems. High levels of NAPQI may cause liver damage, especially if the individual takes acetaminophen to relieve discomfort associated with withdrawal symptoms.
Someone with extreme and prolonged vomiting or diarrhea may become dehydrated or suffer imbalances in electrolytes, such as potassium or sodium. He might vomit and inhale stomach contents, later suffering fluid in the lungs or lung infection.
Perloxx detoxification may cause withdrawal symptoms that worsen pre-existing conditions. For example, he might experience increased blood pressure and pulse that aggravates a heart condition. The detoxification process may cause anxiety in someone already suffering from mood disorders. Detoxification can cause the return of pain in those taking Perloxx to relieve discomfort associated with a chronic illness, such as cancer or arthritis.
Outpatient Care Possible Complications
Outpatients sometimes have trouble quitting replacement drugs and remain on methadone or buprenorphine for months or years - sometimes for the remainder of their lives.
Methadone can be dangerous, especially when taken improperly or in conjunction with other drugs. Even though methadone represents only about 2 percent of sales on the painkiller market, deaths from methadone overdoses account for about a third of deaths associated with prescription opioid overdoses. The number of methadone overdose deaths is rising, with 2009 death rates 5.5 times higher than in 1999.
Buprenorphine abuse may result in death, especially with intravenous use combined with benzodiazepines like the Xanax or Librium used in the Thomas Recipe.
Inpatient Detox Possible Complications
While inpatient care includes prescreening, medications and close patient supervision to protect the patient from complications, they can still occur. Withdrawal from multiple substances, especially alcohol, benzodiazepines, sedatives and anti-anxiety drugs frequently complicate inpatient care.
Rapid Detox Possible Complications
Rarely, someone has an allergic or hypersensitivity reaction to the drugs used in rapid detox. Some patients experience problems with breathing, blood pressure, and pulse after receiving high doses of sedatives. He might suffer bruising, inflammation, or infection at the anesthesia injection site.
Doctors have been searching for ways to help patients reach an opioid-free state since people first became dependent on opium centuries ago. In the decades since, medical researchers have amassed a wealth of information about detoxification while real doctors and patients have documented thousands of hours of their own clinical experience. Despite this wide availability of information about detoxification, myths shrouding Perloxx prevent an untold number of people from getting the help they need.
Self Detox Myths
Myth: Anyone can quit Perloxx with enough determination.
Fact: While self-control helps someone refuse drugs when offered, the detoxification process causes intense physical symptoms.
Myth: Home remedies like The Thomas Recipe are safe and effective.
Fact: Only a doctor has the medical knowledge and the legal power to prescribe safe and effective drugs.
Outpatient Detox Myths
Myth: Methadone causes weight gain.
Fact: Methadone restores appetite lost through chronic drug abuse.
Myth: Methadone rots your teeth.
Fact: Methadone may cause a dry mouth leading to the development of plaque that promotes tooth decay and gum disease. Consumers can reduce this risk by increasing fluid intake and improving dental hygiene habits.
Inpatient Detox Myths
Myth: Inpatient Perloxx detoxification is a waste of a good hospital bed - nobody ever overcomes opioid dependence.
Fact: As when suffering from other chronic conditions, someone battling opioid dependence may relapse during treatment. The relapse rates for drug addiction are 40 to 60 percent, similar to those of other chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes or asthma.
Myth: Communities cannot afford to waste money on drug treatment programs.
Fact: Communities cannot afford to ignore the savings associated with drug treatment programs. For every dollar spent on treatment, experts estimate a community saves $4 to $7 in reduced drug-related crime rates and court costs. Add in savings to the local healthcare system and these savings leap to $12 saved for every dollar spent.
Rapid Detox Myths
Myth: The pain and humiliation of withdrawal symptoms are important features of Perloxx detoxification as they serve as a punishing reminder about drug abuse.
Fact: Human suffering is never acceptable, especially in the treatment of a chronic neurological condition such as opioid dependence. In fact, the physical discomfort and emotional burden of withdrawal symptoms prevent many people from completing the process to achieve an opioid-free state. Rapid detox is the most humane approach to medical detoxification because it removes these negative aspects of detoxification and facilitates completion of the detoxification process.
Myth: It takes five or more days to complete Perloxx detoxification.
Fact: Rapid detox brings a patient to an opioid-free state in one to two hours.
Detox and Pregnancy
Women who are dependent on opioids tend to have a higher incidence of certain medical conditions, such as anemia, blood infections, mood disorders, heart problems, hepatitis, and pneumonia. These women face a higher risk for contracting and spreading infectious diseases, such as sexually transmitted diseases, NIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. An opioid-dependent woman may experience gestational diabetes, which is blood sugar levels that fluctuate wildly during pregnancy.
These conditions can cause complications during pregnancy, labor, and delivery for both the mother and the fetus. Complications can include hemorrhage and bleeding, inflammation or separation of the tissues surrounding the baby, slowed fetal growth, premature labor and delivery, spontaneous abortion, and fetal death.
These complications can make Perloxx detoxification unsafe for pregnant women and their unborn babies, especially self-detoxification. Methadone reduces these complications. At this time, methadone maintenance is the only approved treatment plan for pregnant women, although a 2012 U.S. Government study published in the New England Journal of Medicine calls buprenorphine “an acceptable treatment for opioid dependence in pregnant women.”
Using Perloxx, methadone, or other opioids during pregnancy may result in neonatal abstinence syndrome, or NAS. A child born with NAS suffers withdrawal symptoms in the first weeks or months of his life. NAS increases the newborn’s risk for low birth weight, seizures, respiratory trouble, feeding difficulties, and death. Babies born to women taking methadone during pregnancy will remain under close observation in the hospital for 72 hours after delivery.
Self Detox and Pregnancy
The complications associated with opioid dependence may make self-detoxification unsafe during pregnancy. A pregnant woman should consult with a physician before attempting any form of self-detoxification, including tapering and quitting cold turkey.
Outpatient and Pregnancy
A pregnant woman may start methadone maintenance as an outpatient, although the initial stages of outpatient treatment may be inconvenient, uncomfortable or unsafe. The pregnant woman travels to the clinic for a morning dose of methadone then returns in the evening for evaluation. The doctors will assess her response to methadone and alter her dosage accordingly. This will continue until the doctors and patient establish a safe dose of methadone that still covers symptoms then the woman can reduce visits to once a day.
Doctors will usually start the pregnant woman on 10 to 20 mg of methadone and increases doses by 5 to 10 mg each day until establishing the proper dosage. Sometimes a pregnant woman will require larger doses towards the end of pregnancy to cover breakthrough withdrawal symptoms. The maximum methadone dose for pregnant women is 60 mg.
Inpatient and Pregnancy
Inpatient care protects both the pregnant woman and unborn baby during initiation to methadone treatments. Doctors and nurses closely observe the mother’s response to treatment and monitor fetal movements to determine how well the baby is tolerating methadone. This hospital stay typically lasts three days.
Opiate detox symptoms
The withdrawal symptoms associated with Perloxx detoxification begin a few hours after the last dose or after an inadequate dose. Sometimes these symptoms appear in two phases, with the patient initially feeling anxious, agitated and achy. He might also have watery eyes and a runny nose, sweat or yawn excessively, and have trouble sleeping.
Later, he might develop stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The pupils of his eyes may widen and dilate, and he might have goose bumps on his skin.
The phrase “cold turkey” refers to the skin’s appearance during Perloxx detoxification: pale, cold, and clammy with goose bumps - much like a plucked and frozen bird.
What is the best method to detox from this drug?
Each person experiences opioid dependence and Perloxx detoxification in a slightly different way, so no single approach to treatment is right for everyone. Some people respond best to self-detoxification while others need rigid support and protection from withdrawal symptoms.
The individual should assess the likelihood he will experience withdrawal symptoms and his ability to refrain from drug use, and choose the least restrictive treatment approach that is still likely to bring him to an opioid-free state.
- Perloxx Detox