- Generic Name or Active Ingridient: Oxycodone
- Abdominal Cramping
- Fever, Runny Nose or Sneezing
- Goose Bumps and Abnormal Skin Sensations
- Hot Sweats and Cold Sweats
- Low Energy Level
- Muscle Aches or Pains
- Nausea or Vomiting
- Rapid Heartbeat
- Rigid Muscles
- Runny Nose
- Shivering, Tremors
- Teary Eyes
- Poor concentration
- Social isolation
OxyIR is an immediate release formula of the narcotic pain reliever, oxycodone. Like other opioids, using high doses of OxyIR, or using this drug for a long time, may cause dependence and subsequent withdrawal symptoms when the individual stops taking this painkiller.
OxyIR withdrawal is medical condition known as detoxification, or detox. Detoxification is associated with uncomfortable and long-lasting withdrawal symptoms. OxyIR withdrawal symptoms are a normal, predictable consequence a sudden decrease in opioid levels after using this medication for a long time. OxyIR withdrawal symptoms that can last several days; psychological symptoms of withdrawal may last much longer.
The human body adjusts to the presence of certain chemicals in the body, including OxyIR and other opioids. A body can become tolerant of a particular substance, which means the individual must take an ever-increasing amount of opioids to cause the intended euphoric or pain-relieving effect.
With prolonged use, the body may become dependent on OxyIR. This means the person must maintain a certain level of opioids for his body to feel normal. When his level of opioids drops rapidly, the dependent body struggles to maintain its chemical balance, a process known as detoxification.
This struggle manifests itself through withdrawal symptoms, sometimes known as abstinence syndrome.
A person can cause a sudden decrease in his opioid levels and then experience withdrawal symptoms if he does not take as much OxyIR as his body needs to feel normal. Certain medications, such as naloxone, can also bring down opioid levels quickly.
Taking OxyIR during pregnancy may cause neonatal abstinence syndrome, in which the newborn suffers withdrawal symptoms.
The severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms depends on the dose and amount of time the individual used OxyIR.
Abusing OxyIR increases the risk for physical dependence and subsequent withdrawal symptoms during detoxification.
About 9 percent of people abuse opioids such as OxyIR at some point in their lives. In 2008, 13.8 million adults in the United States used oxycodone non-medically at least one time in their lives, according to the Drug Enforcement Agency, or DEA. To use a drug non-medically means to take it to get high or to treat anything other than what the prescribing physician had intended.
Withdrawal symptoms are painful and demoralizing but not life threatening; OxyIR abuse and addiction, by comparison, can cause disability or premature death. Without medical intervention, overpowering OxyIR withdrawal symptoms cause even the most determine and disciplined individuals to suffer repeated relapses, increasing the risk for complications and overdose.
Withdrawal symptoms associated with OxyIR are similar to other opioids, with physical symptoms similar to the flu. Additionally, withdrawal causes profound psychological symptoms whose demoralizing affects can be just as overpowering as the physical symptoms of withdrawal. Many people lose the will to endure the lengthy detoxification process.
OxyIR withdrawal symptoms typically occur in two phases. The first wave of symptoms usually begins 12 hours after the last dose of opioids and includes agitation, anxiety, muscle aches, watery eyes, insomnia, a runny nose, sweating and yawning. The second round of symptoms consist of abdominal cramping, diarrhea, dilated pupils, goose bumps, nausea and vomiting.
Symptoms last five or more days, with the worst symptoms occurring on or about the fourth day.
Physical symptoms of withdrawal include:
Psychological symptoms of withdrawal include:
OxyIR withdrawal is associated with certain complications, including vomiting and then breathing the stomach contents into the lungs. This is known as aspiration, and it may result in infection. Extreme vomiting and diarrhea may result in dehydration.
The greatest complication associated with opioid withdrawal is relapse. Relapse to OxyIR abuse may result in addiction or overdose. There is a greater possibility of overdose in individuals who have recently gone through detoxification because detox reduces the body's tolerance to opioids. In fact, a person who has just completed detox can overdose on a much smaller dose than they used to take.
Opioid abuse, physical dependence and subsequent withdrawal is a growing epidemic among American adults and youth. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than 23 million people in the United States over the age of 12-years needed treatment for alcohol or substance abuse in 2010; of these, only about 11 percent received treatment at a specialty facility. A little more than 5 percent of admissions to publicly funded substance abuse programs were for opioid abuse treatment.
Various types of treatment facilities assist individuals in overcoming a physical dependence, deal with withdrawal symptoms during detoxification and rehabilitation. Highly trained personnel administer medications, monitor patients for complications and provide essential behavior modification therapy.
Some people try to deal with OxyIR withdrawal symptoms on their own, without the help of medication, in a process known as self-detoxification. Prolonged and painful withdrawal symptoms, coupled with dangerous complications, drive many individuals back to OxyIR abuse.
Other individuals address the physical symptoms of OxyIR withdrawal with homemade treatment plans. One such remedy is The Thomas Recipe, in which a person uses Xanax or some other drug to reduce anxiety and help them sleep. He also takes medications to ease diarrhea, vitamins and supplements to relieve muscle aches and overwhelming fatigue.
While home remedies such as The Thomas Recipe can reduce the intensity and duration of withdrawal symptoms somewhat, those who attempt self-detoxification risk complications. Without behavioral modification from trained professionals, there is a great risk for relapse to OxyIR abuse.
Relapse increases the risk for overdose because detoxification reduces the body's tolerance to opioids. Overdose is a dangerous, potentially fatal medical emergency requiring the immediate attention of medical professionals. Emergency department physicians administer drugs such as naloxone to lower the amount of OxyIR to safe levels. They may also establish an airway to help the patient breathe, empty the contents of the stomach and perform other life saving measures. Nurses monitor the patient and administer naloxone as necessary, as the action of OxyIR may outlast the action of naloxone. Once the patient is in stable condition, she may choose to participate in outpatient behavior modification therapy to help her learn to live without OxyIR.
OxyIR dependent individuals who are in no immediate danger of overdose may participate in Drug Replacement Therapy, or DRT. Patients participate in DRT as outpatients, attending scheduled counseling sessions and receiving refills on the replacement drug. Methadone, Suboxone and buprenorphine are all types of DRT.
Once the individual learns how to live without OxyIR, she weans herself from the replacement drug. Methadone and other DRT medications are opioids and, as such, detoxification from DRT drugs result in uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms. The withdrawal symptoms associated with methadone detoxification set in within 30 hours of the last dose, longer than for most opioids.
Supporters of DRT say this treatment plan allows participants to continue their daily lives during treatment and temporarily avoid the uncomfortable withdrawal process. Opponents say it is merely trading one drug problem for another.
Some people have a difficult time quitting the replacement drug. Harvard Medical School cites estimates that 25 percent of methadone DRT patients eventually abstain, another 25 percent continues to take the drug and 50 percent go on and off methadone.
MAT Medication-Assisted Treatment, or MAT, is any substance abuse treatment plan that includes pharmacological intervention to reduce the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms. DRT is one type of MAT. Medical intervention improves survival rates, increases retention in treatment and decreases OxyIR use. MAT also decreases the risk for infectious diseases including hepatitis and HIV. It also reduces criminal activities, as the individual does not have to commit crimes to support his habit. MAT helps people gain employment and keep their jobs. Finally, MAT improves birth outcomes for pregnant women battling dependence on OxyIR.
Inpatient detoxification is a common form of MAT. During standard detoxification, doctors administer naloxone to reduce OxyIR levels and other medications to reduce the ensuing withdrawal symptoms. Nurses monitor patients for complications and render appropriate aide. While standard detox is safer and quicker than self-detox, patients must still struggle with the demoralizing and disheartening psychological symptoms and social stigmas associated with detox.
Rapid detox is a humane, efficient way to detoxify the body. During rapid detox, board certified anesthesiologists administer the standard detoxification drugs alongside sedatives and anesthesia. Patients enjoy a comfortable "twilight sleep" and awaken a few hours later with no memory of uncomfortable OxyIR withdrawal symptoms. Rapid detox greatly shortens the detoxification process and helps the patient bypass the psychological withdrawal symptoms, putting the individual in a better state of mind for successful rehabilitation.
Rehabilitation typically includes various behavior modification and counseling techniques to help the individual learn how to live without OxyIR. Counseling, along with individual, family and group therapies are commonly used rehabilitation treatments. No single treatment is appropriate for everyone, and effective treatment addresses the multiple needs of the person, not just his dependence to OxyIR and subsequent OxyIR withdrawal.
Experts agree that treatment needs to be readily available to increase the odds the individual will stay in treatment. It is critical that a person remains in treatment for an adequate amount of time to prevent relapse.
Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective. According to NIDA, individuals under legal coercion tend to remain in treatment longer than and do better than those not under pressure.
Counselors and physicians must monitor patients continuously to prevent relapse.