- Generic Name or Active Ingridient: Fentanyl Citrate
- Unexplained Weight Gain or Weight Loss
- A Change in Sleep Patterns
- Deteriorating Physical Appearance - Looks Sickly
- Nagging Cough
- Diminished Hygiene Care
- Body or Clothing May Have an Unusual Odor
- Bloodshot Eyes with Large or Small Pupils
- Slurred Speech
- Fear of Returning Pain
- Inability to Abstain Consistently
- Impairment in Behavioral Control
- Cravings for Drugs or Intense Reward Experiences
- Diminished Capacity to Recognize Significant Personal or Relationship Problems
- Dysfunctional Emotional Response
- Excessive Drug Prescriptions for Self and/or Family
- Frequent Emotional Crisis
- Prioritizing Activities Involving Substance Abuse
- Arguments or Violent Outbursts
- Withdrawal from Relationships, Family or Friends
- Neglect Of Children
- Abnormal, Illegal and Anti-Social Actions
- Separation Or Divorce
- Unexplained Absences from Home
- Legal Problems
- Neglect of Social Commitments
- Unpredictable Behavior such as Inappropriate Spending
The definition of addiction
Fentora addiction is chronic disease affecting the cells of the nervous system. Addiction is a primary disease, which means it is not caused by another medical condition. Family history, social and psychological behaviors and environmental factors influence the development of addiction and the manner in which Fentora addiction manifests itself. A person who is addicted to Fentora may not be able to control his drug use, even though he knows the damage it causes. Addiction is the compulsive use of a drug.
The American Academy of Pain Medicine, the American Pain Society and the American Society of Addiction Medicine collaborated to come up with a scientific definition of addiction. These groups define addiction as "a primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving."
Fentora poses an especially high risk for abuse, misuse, addiction and overdose. Because of this elevated risk, Fentora is only available through a restricted program called TIRF REMS, or Transmucosal Immediate Release Fentanyl (TIRF) Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Access Program. Under the strict guidelines of this program, outpatients and their associated physicians, pharmacies, clinics and distributors must enroll in TIRF REMS.
Each participant must fulfill special requirements. Physicians enrolled in TIRF REMS must review the prescriber information sheets, pharmacies must agree to comply with REMS requirements, wholesalers agree to distribute Fentora only to authorized pharmacies. Individuals who use Fentora on an outpatient basis must understand the risks and benefits of Fentora and sign a patient-prescriber agreement. Inpatients and the accredited healthcare providers who treat them are not required to enroll in TIRF REMS.
Addiction versus Dependency
Being addicted to Fentora is not the same as being physically dependent upon this powerful opioid. An individual may be addicted to a substance but not suffer physically dependence, and vice versa. Both addiction and dependence cause real changes in your body and brain but addiction and dependence manifest themselves in different ways.
When a person takes any drug, it changes his body chemistry. He may experience different sensations as his body reacts to the drug. Taking opioids such as Fentora relieves pain and causes euphoria. If he continues to take some medications, such as opioids, his body becomes tolerant of the substance and the individual may need to take increasingly larger doses to achieve the same effect. This is called increased tolerance.
Physical dependence to a substance means the body has grown accustomed to the presence of the drug and must now maintain a certain level of the chemical to feel normal. For example, if a person is physically dependent on anti-hypertension medication, his body relies on drugs to keep his blood pressure low. If he were to stop taking his anti-hypertensive, his body chemistry would become unbalanced, resulting in skyrocketing blood pressure. Because blood pressure medication is not addictive, he would not crave an anti-hypertensive.
Some drugs cause addiction without physical dependence. You can be addicted to cocaine, for example, without being physically dependent upon it. Individuals who quit using cocaine abruptly after abusing this drug for a long time may experience craving but will not suffer withdrawal symptoms associated with physical dependence.
Addiction: What Family Members Should Know
While researchers are still working to establish the exact cause of drug abuse and dependence, scientists think heredity may play a role. Environmental factors such as peer pressure, emotional distress, anxiety, depression and environmental stress contribute to Fentora addiction.
Children growing up in households where illicit drug use is acceptable are more likely to develop addictions later in life. Scientists think that genetic factors account for about half the likelihood that an individual will develop an addiction.
Family members should know that it may be very difficult, but their loved ones need the compassion of friends and family members before effective recovery can take place. Encourage her to seek recovery with the help of qualified professionals. It is okay for family members to make the first move toward recovery by visiting websites, asking questions and seeking referrals from others who have been in your situation.
It is okay for you to talk about the situation with the individual struggling with addiction. She may resist communicating with you at first, but keep trying. Loved ones may feel betrayed, especially if you have sought help without her consent, but this emotion is a result of the addiction. Once your family member has had time to recover and reflect, she will recognize that you acted out of love.
Addiction to Fentora is a serious disease, requiring not only love and support from family members but also the help of a qualified rehabilitation specialist. As a family member, recognize the limits of your ability and seek professional help for your loved one.
Caring for someone who is addicted to Fentora is not easy; family members should take time out for themselves now and then.
Addiction Symptoms: Physical and Psychological
A person struggling with an addiction to Fentora may exhibit certain physical and psychological symptoms.
Physical symptoms of an addiction to Fentora include:
Psychological symptoms of addiction to Fentora include:
Addiction to Fentora causes changes in brain structure and function, especially in those areas of the brain associated with reward, including the nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, basal forebrain and amygdala. Addiction also changes the way the brain remembers rewards so that an individual associates happy memories with Fentora even none exist.
Addiction and gender: how women and men are affected differently
Addiction to Fentora and other substances affect the two genders differently. Males and females start abusing drugs in different ways, use substances differently and exhibit addictive behaviors in distinct ways.
Some scientific studies suggest that females are more likely to abuse prescription drugs such as Fentora, whereas men seem to prefer illicit drugs, such as marijuana and cocaine. Additionally, women are more apt to abuse multiple substances compared to men, such as combining Fentora with alcohol. Addicted men are more likely to engage in drugs socially, whereas an addicted woman tends to abuse drugs in private.
Women who abuse drugs such as Fentora are likely to come from homes where illicit drug use was acceptable. Addicted women are more likely to be in a relationship with a partner who also abuses drugs than men are; men who abuse drugs tend to do so even if their partners do not abuse substances.
Men who are addicted to Fentora are more likely to exhibit social disorders, such as criminal activity, as compared to addicted women, who are more likely to experience mood disorders. Women with addictions are more prone to body-image problems than are addicted men. Consequently, women are at higher risk for developing eating disorders.
Men and women are different when it comes to recovery from addiction to Fentora and other opioids. Men are more likely to report current drug abuse than are women, according to the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Historically, women have a lower rate for entry into treatment, staying in treatment and completing treatment than men. Social stigmas, economic barriers and family responsibilities prevent addicted women from seeking or completing treatment programs.
Signs of addiction: For those around
Addiction to Fentora changes a person's behavior, thinking patterns and emotions. It may also change his interactions with others, such as family members, co-workers, friends and members of his community. Addiction to opioids such as Fentora alters an individual's ability to make decisions in a way that causes problems with perception, learning ability, ability to control impulses and his judgment.
There are general signs of addiction to opioids such as Fentora. These signs may be subtle; addiction is often a well-guarded secret. Look for these telltale signs of drug addition:
Addiction to Fentora may manifest itself in a variety of ways. A person addicted to opioids may take Fentora or participate in other addictive behaviors to excess, often more frequently or at higher intensity than he intended. Often, the addicted individual may express intent to control his addiction, even while taking more Fentora. He may lose excessive time pursuing, using or recovering from Fentora. He continues to take opioids such as Fentora, even though he knows it is negatively affecting his life. He seems unwilling or unable to quit.
His behavior repertoire, or the general activities of his daily life, shrinks to focus only the rewards of Fentora. He loses interest in the things that used to bring him pleasure and now only Fentora seems to make him happy.
Fentora addiction changes an individual's thought processes. Signs of cognitive changes include preoccupation with Fentora and the altered perception of the benefits and risks of Fentora. He may hold the inaccurate belief that his problems are due to other causes rather than as a predicable consequence of Fentora addiction.
Fentora addiction causes emotional changes, such as increased anxiety and emotional pain. An individual who is addicted to Fentora may suffer from dysphoria, or general sadness.
Researchers believe that addicted individuals suffer from hypersensitivity to stress. She may say things like, "Everything seems more stressful right now." She may have trouble identifying or expressing her feelings to others, or seem reluctant to share her emotions.
Fentora addiction is a serious medical problem requiring professional rehabilitative care. The American Society of Addictive Medicine warns that addiction can cause "disability or premature death, especially when left untreated or treated inadequately." Fentora addiction requires prompt and professional medical treatment but social stigmas, financial limitations and family or professional responsibilities prevent many individuals from seeking qualified care.
Many individuals with an addiction to opioids such as Fentora try to quit on their own, in a process scientists call "self detoxification" or self-detox. This is commonly called "going cold turkey" in reference to appearance of an addict's skin during withdrawal: cold, clammy and pale with goose bumps, similar to the skin of a plucked turkey.
Self-detoxification is fraught with danger, increasing the risk for relapse and complications and reducing the likelihood that an individual can break the cycle of addiction to Fentora. An Individual who chooses self-detox does not enjoy the benefits of medications that ease withdrawal symptoms. She may also suffer from dehydration stemming from severe vomiting and diarrhea. Additionally, she faces an increased risk for aspiration, or inhaling stomach contents into the lungs after vomiting. Detoxification is more difficult and dangerous without proper medical supervision. Facing overpowering withdrawal symptoms without the help of a medical professional sends even the strongest individuals back to Fentora addiction.
Others concoct homemade therapy programs to reduce withdrawal symptoms. One such program is The Thomas Recipe, where an individual puts himself on Xanax or another drug to reduce anxiety and cause sleep, vitamins to relieve muscle aches, and anti-diarrhea medication. While these programs reduce the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms, the person is still at great risk for complications such as dehydration and aspiration. Additionally, these programs do not address the behavioral aspects of Fentora addiction, leaving the individual vulnerable to relapse.
Addiction causes changes to the brain that have a demoralizing affect on the individual as he tries to quit opioid abuse. Social stigmas enhance this negative effect, complicating recovery efforts. The lengthy and uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms demoralize the individual even further, driving many back to Fentora abuse.
Those who choose self-detox are more likely to relapse than those who ask for professional help; individuals who return to opioid abuse after a period of detoxification face a greater risk for overdose because their bodies are less tolerant to the effects of Fentora. A person can overdose on a fraction of what he used to take before he went through detoxification.
A person who has taken an overdose of Fentora must undergo detoxification, a process that will cause withdrawal symptoms in a physically dependent individual. Emergency department personnel will administer drugs that rapidly reduce the amount of fentanyl in the patient's system, monitor the patient's condition, administer fluids and other medications as well as provide any life-saving measures, including CPR. After the patient has received life-saving detoxification treatment, she may be released to a rehabilitation center to treat his addiction to Fentora.
An individual who has not taken an overdose may treat his addiction to Fentora in outpatient rehabilitation, using drug replacement therapy to bypass withdrawal symptoms. During drug replacement therapy, a physician prescribes drugs such as methadone, Suboxone or buprenorphine to reduce withdrawal symptoms as the individual learns to live without Fentora. After he has recovered from Fentora addiction, he weans himself from the replacement drug.
Supporters of drug replacement therapy point out that it allows an individual to continue living his normal life while participating in treatment for his addiction, working and taking care of his family rather than spending time in a rehabilitation facility. Opponents say it is merely trading one addiction for another, and that the individual still has to wean himself from physical dependence on the replacement opioid.
Standard inpatient detoxification methods are safer and more effective than self-detox. During medical detoxification, or detox, physicians administer medications that decrease the levels of Fentora in the patient's body and then dispense drugs to reduce the ensuing withdrawal symptoms. Medical intervention lessens the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms; this has the added benefit of reducing the demoralizing aspects of Fentora addiction and withdrawal in a way that improves rehabilitation.
Rapid detox is the new standard of humane care for those battling an addiction to Fentora. During rapid detox, specially trained anesthesiologists administer the standard detoxification and anti-withdrawal medications alongside anesthesia and sedatives so that the patient enjoys a pleasant "twilight sleep." When the individual awakens a few hours later, he has no recollection of the unpleasant withdrawal process. He is also spared the emotional demoralization associated with withdrawal from Fentora, putting him in a better position for recovery.
Professional care in a rehabilitation center provides the best chance for successful recovery from Fentora addiction. While rapid detox physicians help patients overcome the physical aspects of opioid dependence, overcoming addiction requires behavior modification. The American Society of Addictive Medicine says that recovery from addiction is "best achieved through a combination of self-management, mutual support, and professional care provided by trained and certified professionals."
Addiction is an extremely complicated illness, requiring an equally complex treatment plan. Decades of clinical experience and scientific research has provided rehabilitation specialists with the tools necessary to address the physical, behavioral and psychological aspects of addiction to Fentora.
Rehabilitation may take place as an outpatient or inpatient, in a short-term or long-term facility. Treatment programs provide personal, family and group counseling to help the individual change his behavior and address environmental factors that led to or were a result of his addiction to Fentora. These programs include established and effective behavior modification programs along with providing peer support.